Nine reproductively normal mares, 25 infertile mares and one set of heterosexual twins were examined cytogenetically using conventional giemsa staining, C-banding and G-banding. It was concluded that G-banding was necessary to identify even gross anomalies. Three (12 per cent) of the infertile mares, but none of the controls, had a chromosomal anomaly. One was 63,XO, one a 63,XO/64,XX mixoploid and one a 64,XY sex reversed male. It is argued that a cytogenetic examination is a useful diagnostic technique but that routine screening of the whole population would be uneconomic.