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Summary

At least three types of movement, dorsoventral flexion and extension, axial rotation and lateral bending, were shown to occur at each of the intervertebral joints in the cervical spine. Between the first two cervical vertebrae the mean axial rotation was 107.5°, which was 73 per cent of the total axial rotation of the cervical spine. The atlantooccipital joint rotated through a mean of 27°, whereas the remaining cervical joints each had less than 3° of rotatory movement. Dorsoventral flexion and extension were maximal at the atlantooccipital joint, which had an amplitude of 86.4° and accounted for 32 per cent of the total dorsoventral movement of the cervical spine. Lateral bending was relatively more uniform along the length of the neck, with mean values ranging from 25 to 45° for each joint except that between the first two cervical vertebrae, which had a mean of only 3.9° of lateral bending.