Iridium-192 interstitial brachytherapy for equine periocular tumours: treatment results and prognostic factors in 115 horses

Authors

  • A. P. THÉON,

    1. Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8745, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. R. PASCOE

    1. Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8745, USA.
    Search for more papers by this author

Summary

One hundred and fifteen horses with periocular tumours were treated with iridium-192 interstitial brachytherapy. Tumours included squamous cell carcinomas (n=52) and sarcoids (n=63). All horses were scheduled to receive 60 Gy (minimal tumour dose) given at a low dose rate (0.034 ± 0.010 Gy/h). The mean and median follow-up times to last contact or death were 24 and 16 months, respectively. Chronic radiation reactions included palpebral fibrosis (10.4%), cataract (7.8%), keratitis and corneal ulceration (6.9%). Cosmetic changes included permanent epilation (21.7%) and hair dyspigmentation (78.3%). The one year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for sarcoids and carcinomas were 86.6% and 81.8% and the 5 year PFS rates were 74.0% and 63.5%, respectively. The horse age and sex, histopathological type, anatomical subsite and classification (WHO T1-3) were included in the analysis of prognostic factors. The only significant prognostic factor that independently affected PFS time was the WHO T-classification (P=0.009, relative risk=0.85). When compared to horses with T1 lesions, horses with T2 and T3 lesions had 1.8-fold and 3.4-fold increased risks, respectively, for tumour recurrence (relative excess risk). The one year PFS rates for T1, T2 and T3 lesions were 95.2%, 89.5% and 66.2%, respectively. The 5 year PFS rates were 72.2%, 74.0% and 53.1%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that irradiation is an effective treatment option for horses with T1-2 lesions and should be part of a combined treatment modality for horses with T3 lesions.

Ancillary