Plasma aldosterone concentration and renal sodium excretion are altered during the first days of training

Authors

  • K. H. MCKEEVER,

    Corresponding author
    1. Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.
      Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.
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  • R. SCALI,

    1. Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.
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  • S. GEISER,

    1. Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.
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  • C. F. KEARNS

    1. Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.
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Equine Science Center, Department of Animal Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 84 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901-8525, USA.

Summary

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the training-induced hypervolemic response seen in the horse is associated with aldosterone-mediated renal mechanisms affecting sodium conservation during the first days of training. Five healthy, Standardbred mares (weight 450–500 kg, age 4–8 years) that were unfit, but accustomed to running on the treadmill, were used to test the hypothesis that repeated submaximal exercise would alter plasma aldosterone (ALDO) concentration and renal excretion of electrolytes in horses within the first 3 days of training. The experiment consisted of a 2 week housing equilibration period followed by a 1 week control period and a 3 day exercise training period (30 min/day at 60% V̇O2max). During control, ALDO and renal fluid and electrolyte losses were measured for 24 h on 3 separate days. Renal function (urine volume [UV], 24 h excretion of Na+, K+ and CI- [UNA+V, UK+V, UClV], clearance of Na+ [CNa+], K+ [CK+] and Cl [CCl-], creatinine [CCr], osmotic substances [Cosm], and solute-free water [FWC], and the fractional excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl) and ALDO were measured for an additional 3 consecutive days during the training period. There were no differences (P>0.05) in any variable during the control period. Plasma volume increased (+18.7%, P<0.05) after 3 days of training. During training, there were no significant changes in plasma osmolality, electrolyte concentrations or CCr. Training caused decreases (P<0.05) in UV (-30%), UNA+V (-73%), UK+V, (-55%) and UCl-V (-70%). Training also caused decreases (P<0.05) in Cosm (-30%), through decreases in CNa+ (-60%), CK+ (-60%), and CCl- (-66%). Interestingly, FWC increased (+30%, P<0.05), whereas, there were significant decreases in the fractional excretion of Na+ (-59%), K+ (-48%) and Cl (-60%). Training caused substantial elevations in both pre-exercise (967%, P<0.05) and postexercise (+3013%, P<0.05) plasma ALDO concentrations suggesting an increase in both basal levels and the responsiveness to acute exercise. Together, these observations suggest that mechanisms affecting tubular conservation of electrolytes contribute to the early response to training. However, it is also concluded that renal mechanisms appear to be only part of the mechanism for conserving sodium and water intake as well as training-induced changes in gastrointestinal mechanisms affecting electrolyte and water balance.

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