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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • endurance competition;
  • acid-base;
  • electrolyte alterations;
  • strong ion approach

Summary

Reasons for performing study: Acid-base disturbances are traditionally assessed using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The simplified strong ion approach describes more accurately the complex acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities present in endurance horses.

Objective: To describe acid-base and electrolytes changes in fit horses competing in a FEI*** 120 km endurance race and to compare the traditional vs. strong ion approaches.

Methods: Thirty horses were initially enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples were obtained before the race (n = 25), at the second (n = 29; 65.4 km) and third vet-gates (n = 23, 97.4 km) and upon race completion (n = 17). Blood gas analysis was performed to determine pH, PCO2, PO2, Na+, K+ and iCa++, and calculate HCO3-, base excess and tCO2. Packed cell volume and total protein, globulin, albumin, lactate, phosphate, glucose and creatinine concentrations, as well as muscle enzymes activities, were also determined. Calculated variables included strong ion difference (SIDm), strong ion gap (SIG) and nonvolatile buffer concentration (Atot). A longitudinal linear model using the general estimating equation methodology was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Mild but significant increases in PCO2, SIDm, lactate, plasma protein, globulins and Atot, as well as a decrease in potassium concentrations were observed from the second vet-gate to race finish when compared to prerace values (P<0.05). Using the strong ion approach, 67% samples showed acid-base disturbances vs. 70% when using the traditional method, but their interpretations only matched in 24% of measurements.

Conclusions: A complex acid-base imbalance characterised by a mild strong ion alkalosis (hypochloraemia attenuated by hyperlactataemia), nonvolatile buffer acidosis and compensatory mild respiratory acidosis were present in most horses, although pH did not significantly change during a 120 km endurance race. The strong ion approach to interpretation of acid-base balance should be favoured over the traditional approach in endurance horses, given the frequent and complex alterations in PCO2, SIDm and Atot during a race.