Heel effects on joint contact force components in the equine digit: a sensitivity analysis
Article first published online: 8 NOV 2010
© 2010 EVJ Ltd
Equine Veterinary Journal
Special Issue: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Equine Exercise Physiology
Volume 42, Issue Supplement s38, pages 475–481, November 2010
How to Cite
NOBLE, P., LEJEUNE, J.-P., CAUDRON, I., LEJEUNE, P., COLLIN, B., DENOIX, J.-M. and SERTEYN, D. (2010), Heel effects on joint contact force components in the equine digit: a sensitivity analysis. Equine Veterinary Journal, 42: 475–481. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00221.x
- Issue published online: 8 NOV 2010
- Article first published online: 8 NOV 2010
- [Paper received for publication 09.01.10; Accepted 13.06.10]
- inverse dynamic analysis;
- wrapping force;
- joint contact force
Reasons for performing study: Whereas the effect of heel configuration on the tension of the suspensory apparatus is well documented in the literature, there are few reports of joint contact force components in the equine distal forelimb.
Objectives: To improve understanding of the effect of heel configuration on equine digit joint loading, a sensitivity analysis was performed to compare the effect of a raised heel on joint contact force components in the coffin and fetlock joints during the stance phase of the trot.
Materials and methods: Four Warmblood horses were used. An inverse dynamic analysis was carried out using kinematic and kinetic data. Taking into account the tendon wrapping forces (WF) around the sesamoid bones in the calculations, the joint contact forces (CF) were estimated for the coffin and fetlock joints during the trot stance phase (4 m/s). To test the sensitivity of the results to heel configuration changes, calculations were performed repeatedly for different heel configurations (raised by 0, 6 and 12°). A one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test the effect of heel configuration (at the 3 levels) (α= 0.05; P<0.05; post hoc testing: Bonferroni).
Results: For heel configurations raised from 0–12°: whereas the tension of the deep digital flexor tendon decreased and the tension of the superficial digital flexor tendon increased, for the coffin joint the peak WF (1.4 ± 0.25 bwt; 1.2 ± 0.2 bwt; 0.95 ± 0.1 bwt) and the peak CF (2.45 ± 0.25 bwt; 2.2 ± 0.2 bwt; 2 ± 0.1 bwt) decreased significantly (P<0.05). For the fetlock joint, the peak WF (3.8 ± 0.7 bwt; 4.1 ± 0.3 bwt; 4.4 ± 0.25 bwt) and the peak CF (4.35 ± 0.7 bwt; 4.7 ± 0.35 bwt; 5 ± 0.3 bwt) increased, but not significantly.
Conclusion: This analysis suggests that the coffin joint loading and fetlock joint loading are strongly connected. The heel configuration may influence both coffin joint and fetlock joint contact force components.