SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson, F.C. and Pandy, M.G. (1993) Storage and utilization of elastic strain energy during jumping. J. Biomech. 26, 1413-1427.
  • Biewener, A.A. (1998) Muscle-tendon stresses and elastic energy storage during locomotion in the horse. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 120, 73-87.
  • Brooke, M.H. and Kaiser, K.K. (1970) Muscle fiber types: How many and what kind? Arch. Neurol. 23, 369-379.
  • Brown, N.A., Kawcak, C.E., McIlwraith, C.W. and Pandy, M.G. (2003) Architectural properties of distal forelimb muscles in horses, Equus caballus. J. Morphol. 258, 106-114.
  • Butcher, M.T., Hermanson, J.W., Ducharme, N.G., Mitchell, L.M., Soderholm, L.V. and Bertram, J.E. (2007) Superficial digital flexor tendon lesions in racehorses as a sequela to muscle fatigue: A preliminary study. Equine vet. J. 39, 540-545.
  • Dowling, B.A. and Dart, A.J. (2005) Mechanical and functional properties of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon. Vet. J. 170, 184-192.
  • Essen, B., Lindholm, A. and Thornton, J. (1980) Histochemical properties of muscle fibres types and enzyme activities in skeletal muscles of Standardbred trotters of different ages. Equine vet. J. 12, 175-180.
  • Essen-Gustavsson, B. and Jensen-Waern, M. (2002) Effect of an endurance race on muscle amino acids, pro- and macroglycogen and triglycerides. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 34, 209-213.
  • Essen-Gustavsson, B. and Lindholm, A. (1985) Muscle fibre characteristics of active and inactive Standardbred horses. Equine vet. J. 17, 434-438.
  • Essen-Gustavsson, B., Gottlieb-Vedi, M. and Lindholm, A. (1999) Muscle adenine nucleotide degradation during submaximal treadmill exercise to fatigue. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 30, 298-302.
  • Essen-Gustavsson, B., Roneus, N. and Poso, A.R. (1997) Metabolic response in skeletal muscle fibres of standardbred trotters after racing. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 117, 431-436.
  • Firth, E.C. (2006) The response of bone, articular cartilage and tendon to exercise in the horse. J. Anat. 208, 513-526.
  • Firth, E.C., Rogers, C.W. and Anderson, B.H. (2004) Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training. 4. Morphometric, microscopic and biomechanical properties of the digital tendons of the forelimb. N. Z. vet. J. 52, 285-292.
  • Geor, R.J., McCutcheon, L.J. and Shen, H. (1999) Muscular and metabolic responses to moderate-intensity short-term training. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 30, 311-317.
  • Goodship, A.E., Birch, H.L. and Wilson, A.M. (1994) The pathobiology and repair of tendon and ligament injury. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 10, 323-349.
  • Gottlieb, M., Essen-Gustavsson, B., Lindholm, A. and Persson, S.G. (1989) Effects of a draft-loaded interval-training program on skeletal muscle in the horse. J. appl. Physiol. 67, 570-577.
  • Gottlieb-Vedi, M., Essen-Gustavsson, B. and Lindholm, A. (1996) Cardio-respiratory and plasma lactate responses to exercise with low draught resistances in standardbred trotters. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. A 43, 635-641.
  • Harris, D.B., Harris, R.C., Wilson, A.M. and Goodship, A. (1997) ATP loss with exercise in muscle fibres of the gluteus medius of the Thoroughbred horse. Res. vet. Sci. 63, 231-237.
  • Hermanson, J.W. and Cobb, M.A. (1992) Four forearm flexor muscles of the horse, Equus caballus: Anatomy and histochemistry. J. Morphol. 212, 269-280.
  • Jeffcott, L.B., Rossdale, P.D., Freestone, J., Frank, C.J. and Towers-Clark, P.F. (1982) An assessment of wastage in thoroughbred racing from conception to 4 years of age. Equine vet. J. 14, 185-198.
  • Karlstrom, K., Essen-Gustavsson, B. and Lindholm, A. (1994) Fibre type distribution, capillarization and enzymatic profile of locomotor and nonlocomotor muscles of horses and steers. Acta Anat. (Basel) 151, 97-106.
  • Kasashima, Y., Smith, R.K., Birch, H.L., Takahashi, T., Kusano, K. and Goodship, A.E. (2002) Exercise-induced tendon hypertrophy: Cross-sectional area changes during growth are influenced by exercise. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 34, 264-268.
  • Kerr, H.D. (1988) Posterior tibial tendon rupture. Ann. Emerg. Med. 17, 649-650.
  • Lin, Y.L., Brama, P.A., Kiers, G.H., DeGroot, J. and Van Weeren, P.R. (2005a) Functional adaptation through changes in regional biochemical characteristics during maturation of equine superficial digital flexor tendons. Am. J. vet. Res. 66, 1623-1629.
  • Lin, Y.L., Brama, P.A., Kiers, G.H., Van Weeren, P.R. and DeGroot, J. (2005b) Extracellular matrix composition of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon: relationship with age and anatomical site. J. vet. med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 52, 333-338.
  • Lindner, A., Wurm, S., Beuttler, J., Hermann, H. and Sasse, L. (2003) Effect of water height on biochemistry and heart rate of horses exercising on a treadmill submerged in water. Equine Nut. Physiol. 18, 204-206.
  • Lowry, O.H. (1972) A Flexible System of Enzymatic Analysis, Academic Press, New York.
  • Meyer, R.A. and Terjung, R.L. (1979) Differences in ammonia and adenylate metabolism in contracting fast and slow muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 237, C111-C118.
  • Nankervis, K.J. and Williams, R.J. (2006) Heart rate responses during acclimation of horses to water treadmill exercise. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 36, 110-112.
  • Palmer, S.E., Genovese, R., Longo, K.L., Goodman, N. and Dyson, S. (1994) Practical management of superficial digital flexor tendinitis in the performance horse. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 10, 425-481.
  • Persson, S.G. (1997) Heart rate and blood lactate responses to submaximal treadmill exercise in the normally performing standardbred trotter – age and sex variations and predictability from the total red blood cell volume. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. A 44, 125-132.
  • Pestronk, G.J., Kaiser, K.K. and Brooke, M.H. (1992) ATPase stain in muscle histochemistry. Muscle Nerve 15, 258.
  • Rivero, J.-L. and Diz, A. (1992) Skeletal muscle histochemistry of Andalusian horses: A comparative study with other breeds. Arch. Zootec. 41 (extra), 505-512.
  • Rivero, J.-L., Serrano, A.L., Diz, A.M. and Morales, J.L. (1993) Changes in cross-sectional area and capillary supply of the muscle fiber population in equine gluteus medius muscle as a function of sampling depth. Am. J. vet. Res. 54, 32-37.
  • Rossdale, P.D., Hopes, R., Digby, N.J. and Wofford, K. (1985) Epidemiological study of wastage among racehorses 1982 and 1983. Vet. Rec. 116, 66-69.
  • Schuback, K. and Essen-Gustavsson, B. (1998) Muscle anaerobic response to a maximal treadmill exercise test in Standardbred trotters. Equine vet. J. 30, 504-510.
  • Snow, G. and Guy, D. (1980) Muscle fibre type composition of a number of limb muscles in different types of horse. Res. vet. Sci. 2, 137-144.
  • Swanstrom, M.D., Stover, S.M., Hubbard, M. and Hawkins, D.A. (2004) Determination of passive mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscle-ligament-tendon complexes in the forelimbs of horses. Am. J. vet. Res. 65, 188-197.
  • Swanstrom, M.D., Zarucco, L., Stover, S.M., Hubbard, M., Hawkins, D.A., Driessen, B. and Steffey, E.P. (2005) Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses. J. Biomech. 38, 579-586.
  • Tokuriki, M., Ohtsuki, R., Kai, M., Hiraga, A., Oki, H., Miyahara, Y. and Aoki, O. (1999) EMG activity of the muscles of the neck and forelimbs during different forms of locomotion. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 30, 231-234.
  • Valberg, S. (1987) Metabolic response to racing and fiber properties of skeletal muscle in Standardbred and Thoroughbred horses. J. equine vet. Sci. 7, 6-12.
  • Valberg, S., Essen Gustavsson, B. and Skoglund Wallberg, H. (1988) Oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle fibres in racehorses: histochemical versus biochemical analysis. Equine vet. J. 20, 291-295.
  • Vermeulen, A.D. and Evans, D.L. (2006) Measurements of fitness in Thoroughbred racehorses using field studies of heart rate and velocity with a global positioning system. Equine vet. J., Suppl. 36, 113-117.
  • Voss, B., Mohr, E. and Krzywanek, H. (2002) Effects of aqua-treadmill exercise on selected blood parameters and on heart-rate variability of horses. J. vet. med. A Physiol. Pathol. Clin. Med. 49, 137-143.
  • Weber, J.M., Parkhouse, W.S., Dobson, G.P., Harman, J.C., Snow, D.H. and Hochachka, P.W. (1987) Lactate kinetics in exercising Thoroughbred horses: Regulation of turnover rate in plasma. Am. J. Physiol. 253 (6 Pt 2), R896-R903.
  • Williams, R., Harkins, L., Hamind, C. and Wood, J. (2001) Racehorse injuries, clinical problems, and fatalities recorded on British racecourses from flat racing and National Hunt racing during 1996, 1997 and 1998. Equine vet. J. 33, 478-486.
  • Wilsher, S., Allen, W.R. and Wood, J.L. (2006) Factors associated with failure of Thoroughbred horses to train and race. Equine vet. J. 38, 113-118.
  • Wilson, A.M., McGuigan, M.P., Su, A. and Van Den Bogert, A.J. (2001) Horses damp the spring in their step. Nature 414, 895-899.
  • Zajac, F.E. (1989) Muscle and tendon: Properties, models, scaling, and application to biomechanics and motor control. Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 17, 359-411.
  • Zarucco, L., Taylor, K.T. and Stover, S.M. (2004) Determination of muscle architecture and fiber characteristics of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of adult horses. Am. J. vet. Res. 65, 819-828.
  • Zarucco, L., Swanstrom, M.D., Driessen, B., Hawkins, D., Hubbard, M., Steffey, E.P. and Stover, S.M. (2003) An in vivo equine forelimb model for short-term recording of peak isometric force in the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles. Vet. Surg. 32, 439-450.