Low-field standing magnetic resonance imaging findings of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint of racing Thoroughbreds with lameness localised to the region: A retrospective study of 131 horses
Article first published online: 23 JUN 2011
© 2011 EVJ Ltd
Equine Veterinary Journal
Volume 44, Issue 2, pages 169–177, March 2012
How to Cite
POWELL, S. E. (2012), Low-field standing magnetic resonance imaging findings of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint of racing Thoroughbreds with lameness localised to the region: A retrospective study of 131 horses. Equine Veterinary Journal, 44: 169–177. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00389.x
- Issue published online: 6 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 23 JUN 2011
- [Paper received for publication 03.10.10; Accepted 04.03.11]
Supporting item 1: Additional imaging techniques.
Supporting item 2: Sedation protocols.
Supporting item 3: MRI technical data and slice positioning.
Supporting item 4: Clarification of the term ‘bone marrow oedema’.
Fig S1: a) Flexed dorsopalmar radiographic projection of a right MCP joint. Lateral is to the left. A radiolucent region in the lateral distal condyle (circled) is suspected but not consistently repeatable on subsequent views. b) T1 GRE dorsal oblique MR image of the same joint. Lateral is to the left. A uniaxial POD lesion is present in the lateral condyle (white arrow). On this sequence the surrounding hypointensity within the trabecular bone could represent the presence of bone mineral densification, fluid or both. c) STIR FSE front image of the same joint. The palmar osteochondral lesion is focally hyperintense at the joint margin (closed white arrow) with generalised STIR hyperintensity within the surrounding bone (open white arrow). d) Flexed plantarodorsal radiograph of a right MTP joint with increased opacity within both medial and lateral condyles and a radiolucent region in the lateral condyle (arrow). Lateral is to the left. e) T2 FSE transverse MR image shows focal, circular hyperintense regions are present at the joint margins (closed white arrows) surrounded by hypointense rim of bone mineral densification (open white arrows). f) The STIR FSE dorsal image reveals generalised hyperintensity within the cancellous bone of the third metatarsal condyles, predominantly the lateral condyle (large white arrow).
Fig S2: a) T2* GRE dorsal, b) T2* FSE transverse and c) STIR FSE transverse images of a right MCP joint with MRI findings consistent with a ‘contusion’ injury to the lateral articular aspect of the proximal phalanx. The lesion is hyperintense on T2* and STIR images (white arrows) and hypointense on T1 weighted images. The hypointense ‘rim’ on these T2* weighted images a phase cancellation artefact and does not indicate the presence of bone mineral densification.
Fig S3: a) T2 FSE transverse and b) T1 GRE parasagittal images of a left MCP joint with fragmentation of the dorsal medial (circled) and lateral eminences of the proximal phalanx. Medial is to the left of the transverse image. The parasagittal image corresponds to the medial dorsal eminence. The fragment bed shows T2 FSE hyperintensity and the articular margin is ill defined on the sagittal image. The fragments are not visible on these images.
Fig S4: a) T2 FSE transverse image at the level of the insertion of the suspensory ligament branches (SLB) on the abaxial aspects of the proximal sesamoid bone (PSB). Lateral is to the right. There is focal hyperintensity at the enthesis of the lateral SLB (circled). b) STIR FSE transverse image at the level of the body of the PSBs (white arrow). There is generalised STIR hyperintensity within the lateral PSB. c) T2 FSE transverse oblique image just distal to the base of the PSB. The medial oblique distal sesamoidean ligament is enlarged (black arrow) with loss of definition of its axial margin. All images are taken from the same horse.
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