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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • laminitis;
  • hypothermia;
  • cryotherapy;
  • inflammation;
  • cytokines

Summary

Reasons for performing study: The pathophysiological events inhibited by prophylactic digital hypothermia that result in reduction of the severity of acute laminitis are unknown.

Objectives: To determine if digital hypothermia inhibits lamellar inflammatory signalling during development of oligofructose (OF) induced laminitis.

Methods: Fourteen Standardbred horses were given 10 g/kg bwt OF by nasogastric tube with one forelimb (CRYO) continuously cooled by immersion in ice and water and one forelimb (NON-RX) at ambient temperature. Lamellae were harvested prior to the onset of lameness (24 h post OF administration, DEV group, n = 7) or at the onset of lameness (OG1 group, n = 7). Lamellar mRNA was purified and cDNA produced for real time-quantitative PCR analysis of mRNA concentrations of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10), chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL6, CXCL8/IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-2), cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin), COX-2 and 3 housekeeping genes. Data were analysed (NON-RX vs. CRYO, NON-RX vs. archived control [CON, n = 7] lamellar tissue) using nonparametric tests.

Results: Compared with CON, the OG1 NON-RX had increased (P<0.05) lamellar mRNA concentrations of all measured mediators except IL-10, IL-1β and MCP-1/2, whereas only CXCL8 was increased (P<0.05) in DEV NON-RX. Within the OG1 group, CRYO limbs (compared with NON-RX) had decreased (P<0.05) mRNA concentrations of the majority of measured inflammatory mediators (no change in MCP-1 and IL-10). Within the DEV group, mRNA concentrations of CXCL-1, ICAM-1, IL-1β, CXCL8 and MCP-2 were decreased (P<0.05) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased (compared with NON-RX limbs; P<0.05).

Conclusions: Digital hypothermia effectively blocked early lamellar inflammatory events likely to play an important role in lamellar injury including the expression of chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, COX-2 and endothelial adhesion molecules.

Potential relevance: This study demonstrates a potential mechanism by which hypothermia reduces the severity of acute laminitis, and may help identify molecular targets for future laminitis intervention.