Equine paranasal sinus disease: A long-term study of 200 cases (1997–2009): Ancillary diagnostic findings and involvement of the various sinus compartments
Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011
© 2011 EVJ Ltd
Equine Veterinary Journal
Volume 44, Issue 3, pages 267–271, May 2012
How to Cite
DIXON, P. M., PARKIN, T. D., COLLINS, N., HAWKES, C., TOWNSEND, N., TREMAINE, W. H., FISHER, G., EALEY, R. and BARAKZAI, S. Z. (2012), Equine paranasal sinus disease: A long-term study of 200 cases (1997–2009): Ancillary diagnostic findings and involvement of the various sinus compartments. Equine Veterinary Journal, 44: 267–271. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00420.x
- Issue published online: 4 APR 2012
- Article first published online: 4 AUG 2011
- Received: 04.12.10; Accepted: 08.04.11
- diagnostic techniques;
- compartments affected
Reasons for performing study: There is a lack of objective information on the value of ancillary diagnostic techniques used to investigate equine sinus disease, and also on which sinus compartments are commonly affected in this disorder.
Objectives: To record the ancillary diagnostic findings used to investigate equine sinus disease and to document which compartments are affected.
Materials and methods: The clinical case records of 200 consecutive cases of sinus disease, including subacute (<2 months' duration) primary (n = 52); chronic (>2 months' duration) primary (n = 37); dental (n = 40); traumatic (n = 13); sinus cyst (n = 26); sinus neoplasia (n = 10); dental related oromaxillary fistula (n = 8); mycotic sinusitis (n = 7) and intra-sinus progressive ethmoid haematoma (n = 7) were retrospectively examined.
Results: Nasal endoscopy showed exudate draining from the sino-nasal ostia in 88% of cases and a sino-nasal fistula was present in 15% of cases. Sinoscopy was performed in 79% of cases and was of great diagnostic value. More recently, 22% of cases had fenestration of the ventral conchal bulla performed to allow sinoscopy of the rostral sinus compartments. Radiography was performed in 97% of cases and showed intra-sinus fluid lines to be common (69% prevalence) in subacute primary sinusitis. Radiographic dental apical changes were not specific to dental sinusitis, e.g. 29% of chronic primary sinusitis cases had radiographic dental changes. Scintigraphy was performed in 20% of cases and was helpful in identifying dental apical changes when radiography was inconclusive. Overall, the caudal maxillary (78% involvement) and rostral maxillary (61%) sinuses were most commonly affected, with the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) (54% involvement) and conchofrontal sinuses (48%) less so. The VCS showed the greatest tendency to contain inspissated pus (present in 46% of all affected VCS).
Conclusions: Nasal endoscopy, sinoscopy and skull radiography are of great value in diagnosing the presence and causes of equine sinus disease.