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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • dysphagia;
  • pharynx;
  • neonatal foal;
  • premature;
  • aspiration

Summary

Reasons for performing study: Dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction occurs in human neonates and is associated with prematurity and hypoxic episodes. This syndrome probably occurs in neonatal foals but has not been reported.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to describe 1) a series of neonatal foals with dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction; 2) the progression, treatment and resolution of the dysphagia; 3) the comorbidities; and 4) the prognosis for life and athleticism for affected foals.

Methods: Records from 3 referral equine hospitals were reviewed from neonatal foals with dysphagia of pharyngeal origin. Inclusion criteria were a normal to strong suckle, dysphagia evidenced by milk at the nostrils after nursing the dam, and endoscopic examination of the airway. Foals with mechanical reasons for dysphagia, botulism or hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis were not included.

Results: Sixteen neonatal foals qualified for the study. Eight (50%) were premature and/or diagnosed with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Twelve (75%) had aspiration pneumonia. Fifteen foals were discharged alive from the hospital, nursing the mare with no evidence of dysphagia (n = 14), or mild dysphagia (n = 1), a mean ± s.d. of 7 ± 6 days (median = 6.3 days, range 0–22 days) after hospital admission. One foal was subjected to euthanasia in hospital. Follow-up information was available for 14 animals. Thirteen of 16 (81%) were alive and included one yearling and 12 horses >2 years old. Seven of the 14 (50%) were racing, training or in work, and 6 horses were pets, breeding animals or had unknown athletic status. Two had laryngeal deficits. One foal was subjected to euthanasia within weeks of discharge from the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia.

Conclusion: Dysphagia related to pharyngeal dysfunction occurs in equine neonates and can resolve, but may require days to weeks of supportive care. Prognosis for life is favourable and for athleticism fair.