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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • pneumatosis intestinalis;
  • necrotising gastrointestinal disease;
  • neonate;
  • abdominal ultrasonography

Summary

Reasons for performing study: Recognising the presence of a necrotising component of the gastrointestinal disease may be clinically useful in ill equine neonates.

Objectives: To study the importance of abdominal sonograms in neonatal foals suffering from gastrointestinal conditions and to describe the clinical features of necrotising gastrointestinal disease.

Hypothesis: There is a subgroup of neonates with sonographically detectable pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), reflecting a necrotising disease.

Methods: Records of foals aged ≤7 days hospitalised from 2005 to 2009 with signs of gastrointestinal disease were evaluated (n = 89). The association of sonographic, clinical and clinicopathological signs with necrotising gastrointestinal disease and outcome was determined.

Results: PI was imaged in 19 foals. Twenty-seven foals were classified as having necrotising gastrointestinal disease based on the presence of gastrointestinal signs (colic, diarrhoea, gastric reflux or abdominal distension) and sonographic PI (n = 19), surgical (n = 2) or pathological (n = 6) evidence of gastrointestinal necrosis. There was a difference between survival rate in foals with and without necrotising disease (33.3 and 69.4%, respectively, P = 0.005) or foals with and without PI detected sonographically (36.8 and 72.1%, respectively, P = 0.023). PI was the only sonographic finding associated with outcome. Prematurity, the presence of blood in the faeces, gastric reflux, abdominal distension, abnormal echogenicity of the colon and the lowest white blood cell count during hospitalisation were associated with necrotising gastrointestinal disease (P<0.05).

Conclusions and potential relevance: Abdominal sonograms have prognostic value in neonatal gastrointestinal disease. PI and the presence of necrotising gastrointestinal disease were common and associated with a poor prognosis.