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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • neonate;
  • septic meningitis;
  • sepsis;
  • neurological disease

Summary

Reasons for performing the study: Bacterial meningoencephalitis is a severe complication in septic foals and there is scarce and often unclear information in the equine literature.

Objectives: To report the most frequent clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, causative agents, treatments given and outcome of a group of foals with confirmed bacterial meningoencephalitis.

Methods: Foals aged <6 months of age admitted to the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (2004–2009) with confirmed bacterial meningoencephalitis were retrospectively included in the study. Diagnosis of bacterial meningoencephalitis was made by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, CSF analysis consistent with bacterial infection, observation of bacteria in CSF cytology or post mortem confirmation.

Results: Nine neonates and one 5-month-old foal were included. The most frequently observed clinical signs were alterations in mental status (10/10), recumbency (8/10), weakness (8/10), abnormal pupillary light reflexes (6/10), decreased suckling-reflex (6/9), seizures and/or nystagmus (4/10). Common clinicopathological alterations included hyperfibrinogenaemia (8/9), hyperlactataemia (7/7), and neutropenia (5/10) or neutrophilia (5/10). Most neonates (8/9) developed bacterial meningoencephalitis despite having a sepsis score near the cut-off value (median = 12). On CSF analysis, pleocytosis (9/9), increased total protein concentration (5/6) and intracellular bacteria (6/9) were detected. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Once bacterial meningoencephalitis was diagnosed, antimicrobial therapy was switched to third and fourth generation cephalosporins.

Conclusions: The diagnosis of bacterial meningoencephalitis is established based on CSF analysis and culture. Clinical recognition of bacterial meningoencephalitis is difficult and can be easily overlooked. Moreover, severe sepsis is not necessary to develop bacterial meningoencephalitis.

Potential relevance: CSF analysis should be considered more often in sick newborn foals with signs indicative of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and culture would help to confirm or rule out unnoticed bacterial meningoencephalitis, and to choose appropriate antimicrobial therapy.