• horse;
  • cystotomy;
  • bladder;
  • calculus;
  • veterinary;
  • parainguinal


This report describes a modification of the parainguinal approach for removal of cystic calculi: a ventral midline laparotomy-guided parainguinal laparocystotomy. The ventral midline approach to the abdomen is rapid and routinely used by equine surgeons. With an arm introduced to the abdomen via the ventral midline, the surgeon is able to select the ideal parainguinal laparotomy incision location that allows bladder exteriorisation with the minimum amount of tension. Because the surgeon's hand is introduced via the ventral midline incision, the parainguinal incision can be sized to just allow exteriorisation of the urinary bladder and urolith, increasing extra-abdominal bladder security during cystotomy while reducing incision size in the parainguinal region. Finally, an assistant's hand via the ventral midline incision can maintain bladder stability within the parainguinal incision during cystotomy closure.