• 1
    Dowling, B.A., Dart, A.J., Hodgson, D.R. and Smith, R.K.W. (2000) Superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the horse. Equine Vet. J. 32, 369-378.
  • 2
    Patterson-Kane, J.C. and Firth, E.C. (2009) The pathobiology of exercise-induced superficial digital flexor tendon injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Vet. J. 181, 79-89.
  • 3
    Thorpe, C.T., Clegg, P.D. and Birch, H.L. (2010) A review of tendon injury: why is the equine superficial digital flexor tendon most at risk? Equine Vet. J. 42, 174-180.
  • 4
    Takahashi, T., Kasashima, Y. and Ueno, Y. (2004) Association between race history and risk of superficial digital flexor tendon injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 225, 90-93.
  • 5
    Kasashima, Y., Takahashi, T., Smith, R.K.W., Goodship, A.E., Kuwano, A., Ueno, T. and Hirano, S. (2004) Prevalence of superficial digital flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis in Japanese Thoroughbred flat racehorses in 1999. Equine Vet. J. 36, 346-350.
  • 6
    Perkins, N.R., Reid, S.W. and Morris, R.S. (2005) Risk factors for injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon and suspensory apparatus in Thoroughbred racehorses in New Zealand. N. Z. Vet. J. 53, 184-192.
  • 7
    Cohen, N.D., Peloso, J.G., Mundy, G.D., Fisher, M., Holland, R.E., Little, T.V., Misheff, M.M., Watkins, J.P., Honnas, C.M. and Moyer, W. (1997) Racing-related factors and results of prerace physical inspection and their association with musculoskeletal injuries incurred in thoroughbreds during races. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 211, 454-463.
  • 8
    Williams, R.B., Harkins, L.S., Hammond, C.J. and Wood, J.L.N. (2001) Racehorse injuries, clinical problems and fatalities recorded on British racecourses from flat racing and National Hunt racing during 1996, 1997 and 1998. Equine Vet. J. 33, 478-486.
  • 9
    Pinchbeck, G.L., Clegg, P.D., Proudman, C.J., Stirk, A., Morgan, K.L. and French, N.P. (2004) Horse injuries and racing practices in National Hunt racehorses in the UK: the results of a prospective cohort study. Vet. J. 167, 45-52.
  • 10
    Ely, E.R., Avella, C.S., Price, J.S., Smith, R.K.W., Wood, J.L.N. and Verheyen, K.L.P. (2009) Descriptive epidemiology of fracture, tendon and suspensory ligament injuries in National Hunt racehorses in training. Equine Vet. J. 41, 372-378.
  • 11
    Avella, C.S., Ely, E.R., Verheyen, K.L., Price, J.S., Wood, J.L.N. and Smith, R.K.W. (2009) Ultrasonographic assessment of the superficial digital flexor tendons of National Hunt racehorses in training over two racing seasons. Equine Vet. J. 41, 449-454.
  • 12
    O'Meara, B., Bladon, B., Parkin, T.D., Fraser, B. and Lischer, C.J. (2010) An investigation of the relationship between race performance and superficial digital flexor tendonitis in the Thoroughbred racehorse. Equine Vet. J. 42, 322-326.
  • 13
    Reardon, R.J.M., Boden, L.A., Mellor, D.J., Love, S., Newton, R., Stirk, A. and Parkin, T.D.H. (2012) Risk factors for superficial digital flexor tendinopathy in Thoroughbred racehorses in hurdle starts in the United Kingdom (2001-2009). Equine Vet. J. Epub ahead of print; doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2012.00552x.
  • 14
    Garvican, E.R., Vaughan-Thomas, A., Innes, J.F. and Clegg, P.D. (2010) Biomarkers of cartilage turnover. Part 1: markers of collagen degradation and synthesis. Vet. J. 185, 36-42.
  • 15
    Garvican, E.R., Vaughan-Thomas, A., Clegg, P.D. and Innes, J.F. (2010) Biomarkers of cartilage turnover. Part 2: non-collagenous markers. Vet. J 185, 43-49.
  • 16
    Smith, R.K. and Heinegard, D. (2000) Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) levels in digital sheath synovial fluid and serum with tendon injury. Equine Vet. J. 32, 52-58.
  • 17
    Jackson, B.E., Smith, R.K. and Price, J.S. (2003) A molecular marker of type I collagen metabolism reflects changes in connective tissue remodelling associated with injury to the equine superficial digital flexor tendon. Equine Vet. J. 35, 211-213.
  • 18
    Smith, M.R., Wright, I.M., Minshall, G.J., Dudhia, J., Verheyen, K., Heinegård, D. and Smith, R.K. (2011) Increased cartilage oligomeric matrix protein concentrations in equine digital flexor tendon sheath synovial fluid predicts intrathecal tendon damage. Vet. Surg. 40, 54-58.
  • 19
    Dakin, S.G., Jespers, K., Warner, S., O'Hara, L.K., Dudhia, J., Goodship, A.E., Wilson, A.M. and Smith, R.K.W. (2011) The relationship between in vivo limb and in vitro tendon mechanics after injury: a potential novel clinical tool for monitoring tendon repair. Equine Vet. J. 43, 418-423.
  • 20
    Clegg, P.D., Strassburg, S. and Smith, R.K.W. (2007) Cell phenotypic variation in normal and damaged tendons. Int. J. Expt. Pathol. 88, 227-235.
  • 21
    Taylor, S.E., Vaughan-Thomas, A., Clements, D.N., Pinchbeck, G., Macrory, L.C., Smith, R.K. and Clegg, P.D. (2009) Gene expression markers of tendon fibroblasts in normal and diseased tissue compared to monolayer and three dimensional culture systems. BMC Musculoskelet. Disord. 10, 27.
  • 22
    Birch, H.L., Worboys, S., Eissa, S., Jackson, B., Strassburg, S. and Clegg, P.D. (2008) Matrix metabolism rate differs in functionally distinct tendons. Matrix Biol. 27, 182-189.
  • 23
    Thorpe, C.T., Streeter, I., Pinchbeck, G.L., Goodship, A.E., Clegg, P.D. and Birch, H.L. (2010) Aspartic acid racemization and collagen degradation markers reveal an accumulation of damage in tendon collagen that is enhanced with aging. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 15674-15681.
  • 24
    Young, N.J., Becker, D.L., Fleck, R.A., Goodship, A.E. and Patterson-Kane, J.C. (2009) Maturational alterations in gap junction expression andassociated collagen synthesis in response to tendon function. Matrix Biol. 28, 311-323.
  • 25
    Stanley, R.L., Fleck, R.A., Becker, D.L., Goodship, A.E., Ralphs, J.R. and Patterson-Kane, J.C. (2007) Gap junction protein expression and cellularity: comparison of immature and adult equine digital tendons. J. Anat. 211, 325-334.
  • 26
    Smith, R.K.W., Birch, H.L., Goodman, S., Heinegård, D. and Goodship, A.E. (2002) The influence of ageing and exercise on tendon growth and degeneration–hypotheses for the initiation and prevention of strain-induced tendinopathies. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. 133, 1039-1050.
  • 27
    Smith, R.K.W. and Goodship, A.E. (2008) The effect of early training and the adaptation and conditioning of skeletal tissues. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 24, 37-51.
  • 28
    Birch, H.L., Wilson, A.M. and Goodship, A.E. (2008) Physical activity: does long-term, high-intensity exercise in horses result in tendon degeneration? J. Appl. Physiol. 105, 1927-1933.
  • 29
    Kasashima, Y., Smith, R.K.W., Birch, H.L., Takahashi, T., Kusano, K. and Goodship, A.E. (2002) Exercise-induced tendon hypertrophy: cross-sectional area changes during growth are influenced by exercise. Equine Vet. J. Suppl. 34, 264-268.
  • 30
    Kasashima, Y., Takahashi, T., Birch, H.L., Smith, R.K.W. and Goodship, A.E. (2008) Can exercise modulate the maturation of functionally different immature tendons in the horse? J. Appl. Physiol. 104, 416-422.
  • 31
    Rogers, C.W., Firth, E.C., McIlwraith, C.W., Barneveld, A., Goodship, A.E., Kawcak, C.E., Smith, R.K.W. and van Weeren, P.R. (2008) Evaluation of a new strategy to modulate skeletal development in racehorses by imposing track-based exercise during growth: the effects on 2- and 3-year-old racing careers. Equine Vet. J. 40, 119-127.
  • 32
    Moffat, P.A., Firth, E.C., Rogers, C.W., Smith, R.K.W., Barneveld, A., Goodship, A.E., Kawcak, C.E., McIlwraith, C.W. and van Weeren, P.R. (2008) The influence of exercise during growth on ultrasonographic parameters of the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbred horses. Equine Vet. J. 40, 136-140.
  • 33
    Clegg, P.D. and Pinchbeck, G.L. (2011) Evidence-based medicine and stem cell therapy: how do we know such technologies are safe and efficacious? Vet. Clin. N. Am. Exot. Anim. Pract. 27, 373-382.
  • 34
    Richardson, L.E., Dudhia, J., Clegg, P.D. and Smith, R. (2007) Stem cells in veterinary medicine–attempts at regenerating equine tendon after injury. Trends Biotechnol. 25, 409-416.
  • 35
    Schnabel, L.V., Mohammed, H.O., Jacobson, M.S. and Fortier, L.A. (2008) Effects of platelet rich plasma and acellular bone marrow on gene expression patterns and DNA content of equine suspensory ligament explant cultures. Equine Vet. J. 40, 260-265.
  • 36
    Schnabel, L.V., Mohammed, H.O., Miller, B.J., McDermott, W.G., Jacobson, M.S., Santangelo, K.S. and Fortier, L.A. (2007) Platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances anabolic gene expression patterns in flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J. Orthop. Res. 25, 230-240.
  • 37
    Frisbie, D.D. and Smith, R.K.W. (2010) Clinical update on the use of mesenchymal stem cells in equine orthopaedics. Equine Vet. J. 42, 86-89.
  • 38
    Lange-Consiglio, A., Corradetti, B., Bizzaro, D., Magatti, M., Ressel, L., Tassan, S., Parolini, O. and Cremonesi, F. (2011) Characterization and potential applications of progenitor-like cells isolated from horse amniotic membrane. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. Epub ahead of print; doi: 10.1002/term.465.
  • 39
    Nagy, K., Sung, H.K., Zhang, P., Laflamme, S., Vincent, P., Agha-Mohammadi, S., Woltjen, K., Monetti, C., Michael, I.P., Smith, L.C. and Nagy, A. (2011) Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from equine fibroblasts. Stem Cell Rev. 7, 693-702.
  • 40
    Watts, A.E., Yeager, A.E., Kopyov, O.V. and Nixon, A.J. (2011) Fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells improve healing in a large animal flexor tendonitis model. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2, 4.
  • 41
    Stewart, M.C. and Stewart, A.A. (2011) Mesenchymal stem cells: characteristics, sources, and mechanisms of action. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 27, 243-261.
  • 42
    Hackett, C.H. and Fortier, L.A. (2011) Embryonic stem cells and iPS cells: sources and characteristics. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 27, 233-242.
  • 43
    Nixon, A.J., Dahlgren, L.A., Haupt, J.L., Yeager, A.E. and Ward, D.L. (2008) Effect of adipose-derived nucleated cell fractions on tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 69, 928-937.
  • 44
    Schnabel, L.V., Lynch, M.E., van der Meulen, M.C., Yeager, A.E., Kornatowski, M.A. and Nixon, A.J. (2009) Mesenchymal stem cells and insulin-like growth factor-I gene-enhanced mesenchymal stem cells improve structural aspects of healing in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J. Orthop. Res. 27, 1392-1398.
  • 45
    Alves, A.G., Stewart, A.A., Dudhia, J., Kasashima, Y., Goodship, A.E. and Smith, R.K. (2011) Cell-based therapies for tendon and ligament injuries. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 27, 315-333.
  • 46
    Guest, D.J., Smith, M.R.W. and Allen, W.R. (2008) Monitoring the fate of autologous and allogenic mesenchymal progenitor cells injected into the suerficial digital flexor tendon of horses: preliminary study. Equine Vet. J. 40, 178-181.
  • 47
    Godwin, E.E., Young, N.J., Dudhia, J., Beamish, I.C. and Smith, R.K.W. (2012) Implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells demonstrates improved outcome in horses with overstrain injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon. Equine Vet. J. 44, 25-32.
  • 48
    Caniglia, C.J., Schramme, M.C. and Smith, R.K. (2011) The effect of intralesional injection of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow supernatant on collagen fibril size in a surgical model of equine superficial digital flexor tendonitis. Equine Vet. J. Epub ahead of print; doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00514.x.