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Keywords:

  • horse;
  • endotoxaemia;
  • sepsis;
  • innate immunity;
  • pathogen recognition receptor;
  • pathogen-associated molecular pattern

Summary

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on host cells detect pathogens to activate innate immunity which, in turn, initiates inflammatory and adaptive immune responses. Successful activation of PRRs is, therefore, critical to controlling infections and driving pathogen-specific adaptive immunity, but overactivity of PRRs causes systemic inflammation, which is detrimental to the host. Here we review the PRR literature as it relates to horses and speculate on the role PRRs may play in sepsis and endotoxaemia.