• 1
    Schott, H.C. (2002) Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction: equine Cushing's disease. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 18, 237-270.
  • 2
    Saiardi, A. and Borrelli, E. (1998) Absence of dopaminergic control on melanotrophs leads to Cushing's-like syndrome in mice. Mol. Endocrinol. 12, 1133-1139.
  • 3
    McFarlane, D. (2007) Advantages and limitations of the equine disease, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction as a model of spontaneous dopaminergic neurodegenerative disease. Ageing Res. Rev. 6, 54-63.
  • 4
    McFarlane, D. and Cribb, A. (2004) 3-nitrotyrosine accumulation and increased alpha-synuclein expression in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID.). Free Radic. Biol. Med. 37, S161.
  • 5
    McFarlane, D., Dybdal, N., Donaldson, M.T., Miller, L. and Cribb, A.E. (2005) Nitration and increased alpha-synuclein expression associated with dopaminergic neurodegeneration in equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. J. Neuroendocrinol. 17, 73-80.
  • 6
    McFarlane, D., Maidment, N.T., Lam, H. and Seigel, J.M. (2007) Cerebrospinal fluid concentration of hypocretin-1 in horses with equine pituitary pars intermedia. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 21, 602-603 (abstract).
  • 7
    Heinrichs, M., Baumgartner, W. and Capen, C.C. (1990) Immunocytochemical demonstration of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in pituitary adenomas of the pars intermedia in horses. Vet. Pathol. 27, 419-425.
  • 8
    Brosnahan, M.M. and Paradis, M.R. (2003) Demographic and clinical characteristics of geriatric horses: 467 cases (1989-1999). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 223, 93-98.
  • 9
    Love, S. (1993) Equine Cushing's disease. Vet. J. 149, 139-153.
  • 10
    McGowan, C. (2003) Diagnostic and management protocols for equine Cushing's syndrome. In Pract. 25, 586-592.
  • 11
    Divers, T.J. (2008) Endocrine testing in horses: metabolic syndrome and Cushing's disease. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 28, 315-316.
  • 12
    Couetil, L., Paradis, M.R. and Knoll, J. (1996) Plasma adrenocorticotropin concentration in healthy horses and in horses with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 10, 1-6.
  • 13
    Perkins, G.A., Lamb, S., Erb, H.N., Schanbacher, B., Nydam, D.V. and Divers, T.J. (2002) Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations and clinical response in horses treated for equine Cushing's disease with cyproheptadine or pergolide. Equine Vet. J. 34, 679-685.
  • 14
    Miller, M.A., Pardo, I.D., Jackson, L.P., Moore, G.E. and Sojka, J.E. (2008) Correlation of pituitary histomorphometry with adrenocorticotrophic hormone response to domperidone administration in the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Vet. Pathol. 45, 26-38.
  • 15
    Frank, N., Andrews, F.M., Sommardahl, C.S., Eiler, H., Rohrbach, B.W. and Donnell, R.L. (2006) Evaluation of the combined dexamethasone suppression/thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test for detection of pars intermedia pituitary adenomas in horses. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 20, 987-993.
  • 16
    McGowan, T.W., Pinchbeck, G. and McGowan, C.M. (2013) Evaluation of basal plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations for the diagnosis of PPID from a population of aged horses. Equine Vet. J. 45, 6673.
  • 17
    Brosnahan, M.M. and Paradis, M.R. (2003) Assessment of clinical characteristics, management practices, and activities of geriatric horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 223, 99-103.
  • 18
    Chandler, K.J. and Mellor, D.J. (2001) Apilot study of the prevalence of disease within a geriatric horse population. In: Proceedings of the Congress of the British Equine Veterinary Association, Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd., Newmarket. p 217.
  • 19
    Mellor, D.J., Reid, S.W.J., Love, S., Walker, R. and Gettinby, G. (2001) Sentinel practice-based survey of the management and health of horses in northern Britain. Vet. Rec. 149, 417-423.
  • 20
    McGowan, T.W., Pinchbeck, G.L., Phillips, C., Perkins, N., Hodgson, D.R. and McGowan, C.M. (2010) A survey of aged horses in Queensland, Australia. Part 1: management and preventive health care. Aust. Vet. J. 88, 420-427.
  • 21
    Ruopp, M.D., Perkins, N.J., Whitcomb, B.W. and Schisterman, E.F. (2008) Youden index and optimal cut-point estimated from observations affected by a lower limit of detection. Biom. J. 50, 419-430.
  • 22
    McGowan, T.W., Pinchbeck, G.L., Phillips, C., Perkins, N., Hodgson, D.R. and McGowan, C.M. (2010) A survey of aged horses in Queensland, Australia. Part 2: clinical signs and owner perceptions of health and welfare. Aust. Vet. J. 88, 465-471.
  • 23
    Ireland, J.L., Clegg, P.D., McGowan, C.M., McKane, S.A., Chandler, K.J. and Pinchbeck, G.L. (2012) Disease prevalence in geriatric horses in the United Kingdom: veterinary clinical assessment of 200 cases. Equine Vet. J. 44, 101-106.
  • 24
    Buckley, P., Dunn, T. and More, S.J. (2004) Owners' perceptions of the health and performance of Pony Club horses in Australia. Prev. Vet. Med. 63, 121-133.
  • 25
    Hintz, H.F. (1995) The geriatric horse. Equine Pract. 17, 8-10.
  • 26
    van der Kolk, J.H., Heinrichs, M., van Amerongen, J.D., Stooker, R.C., in de Wal, L.J. and van den Ingh, T.S. (2004) Evaluation of pituitary gland anatomy and histopathologic findings in clinically normal horses and horses and ponies with pituitary pars intermedia adenoma. Am. J. Vet. Res. 65, 1701-1707.
  • 27
    Fey, K., Jonigkeit, E. and Moritz, A. (1998) The equine Cushing's syndrome (ECS): a case report, review of its diagnosis and therapy, and main differences to canine Cushing's syndrome. Tierarztl. Prax. Ausg. G. Grosstiere Nutztiere 26, 41-47.
  • 28
    Hillyer, M.H., Taylor, F.G., Mair, T.S., Murphy, D., Watson, T.D.G. and Love, S. (1992) Diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in the horse. Equine Vet. Educ. 4, 131-134.
  • 29
    Ireland, J.L., McGowan, C.M., Clegg, P.D., Chandler, K.J. and Pinchbeck, G.L. (2012) A survey of health care and disease in geriatric horses aged 30 years or older. Vet. J. 192, 57-64.
  • 30
    McFarlane, D., Sellon, D.C., Gaffney, D., Hedgpeth, V., Papich, M. and Gibbs, S. (1998) Hematologic and serum biochemical variables and plasma corticotropin concentration in healthy aged horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59, 1247-1251.
  • 31
    Horohov, D.W., Adams, A.A. and Chambers, T.M. (2010) Immunosenescence of the equine immune system. J. Comp. Pathol. 142, Suppl . 1 , S78-S84.
  • 32
    McGowan, C.M., Frost, R., Pfeiffer, D.U. and Neiger, R. (2004) Serum insulin concentrations in horses with equine Cushing's syndrome: response to a cortisol inhibitors and prognostic value. Equine Vet. J. 36, 295-298.
  • 33
    McGowan, C.M. (2008) Role of insulin in endocrinopathic laminitis. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 28, 603-607.