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References

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    Dixon, P.M., McGorum, B.C., Railton, D.I., Hawe, C., Tremaine, W.H., Dacre, K. and McCann, J. (2003) Long-term survey of laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy in an older, mixed-breed population of 200 racehorses. Part 2: owners' assessment of the value of surgery. Equine Vet. J. 35, 397-401.
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    Kraus, B.M., Parente, E.J. and Tulleners, E.P. (2003) Laryngoplasty with ventriculectomy or ventriculocordectomy in 104 draft racehorses (1992–2000). Vet. Surg. 32, 530-538.
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    Taylor, S.E., Barakzai, S.Z. and Dixon, P. (2006) Ventriculocordectomy as the sole treatment for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy: long-term results from ninety-two horses. Vet. Surg. 35, 653-657.
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    Hawkins, J.F., Tulleners, E.P., Ross, M.W., Evans, L.H. and Raker, C.W. (1997) Laryngoplasty with or without ventriculectomy for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in 230 racehorses. Vet. Surg. 26, 484-491.
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    Kidd, J.A. and Slone, D.E. (2002) Treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in racehorses by prosthetic laryngoplasty, ventriculectomy and vocal cordectomy. Vet. Rec. 150, 481-484.
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    Witte, T.H., Mohammed, H.O., Radcliffe, C.H., Hackett, R.P. and Ducharme, N.G. (2009) Racing performance after combined prosthetic laryngoplasty and ipsilateral ventriculocordectomy or partial arytenoidectomy: 135 Thoroughbred racehorses competing at less than 2400 m (1997–2007). Equine Vet. J. 39, 70-75.
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    Hackett, R.P., Ducharme, N.G., Fubini, S.L. and Erb, H.N. (1991) The reliability of endoscopic examination in assessment of arytenoid cartilage movement in racehorses. Part 1: subjective and objective laryngeal evaluation. Vet. Surg. 20, 174-179.
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    Russell, A.P. and Slone, D.E. (1994) Performance analysis after prosthetic larygoplasty and bilateral ventriculectomy for laryngeal hemiplegia in racehorses: 70 cases (1986–1991). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 204, 1235-1241.
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    Bathe, A.P. (1993) Left laryngeal hemiplegia in the racehorse: a survey of diagnostic criteria and management practices employed by 20 veterinary surgeons in Europe. Equine Vet. Educ. 5, 84-85.
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    Cook, W.R., Williams, R.M., Kirker-Head, C.A. and Verbridge, D.J. (1988) Upper airway obstruction (partial asphyxia) as the possible cause of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in the racehorse: a hypothesis. J. Equine Vet. Sci. 8, 11-26.
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    Hinchcliff, K. (2007) Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage. In: Equine Respiratory Medicine and Surgery, Eds: B. McGorum, P. Dixon, N. Robinson and J. Schumacher, Saunders, London. pp 617-629.
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    Wood, J.L., Newton, J.R., Chanter, N. and Mumford, J.A. (2005) Inflammatory airway disease, nasal discharge and respiratory infections in young British racehorses. Equine Vet. J. 37, 236-242.
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    O'Callaghan, M.W., Pascoe, J.R. and Tyler, W.S. (1987) Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in the racehorse: results of a detailed clinical, post mortem and imaging study. Gross lung pathology. Equine Vet. J. 19, 389-393.
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    McKane, S. and Slocombe, R. (2010) Experimental mild pulmonary inflammation promotes the development of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Equine Vet. J. 42, 235-439.
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    Ramzan, P.H., Parkin, T.D. and Shepherd, M.C. (2008) Lower respiratory tract disease in Thoroughbred racehorses: analysis of endoscopic data from a UK training yard. Equine Vet. J. 40, 7-13.
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    Lane, J.G. (2003) 5-point grading system of laryngeal function in racehorses during quiet breathing. Proceedings of Havemyer Foundation Monograph series. 11, 2425.
  • 20
    Tetens, J., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Lloyd, J.W. and Robinson, N.E. (1996) Efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty with and without bilateral ventriculocordectomy as treatments for laryngeal hemiplegia in racehorses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57, 1668-1673.
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    Ducharme, N.G. and Hiraga, A. (1999) Upper airway disease: does it affect lower airway mechanics and pulmonary haemodynamics? Equine Vet. J. Suppl. 30, 639.
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    Jackson, J.A., Ducharme, N.G., Hackett, R.P., Eehder, R.S., Ainsworth, D.M., Shannon, K.J., Erickson, B.K., Erb, H.N., Jansson, N., Soderholm, L.V., Jr and Thorson, L.M. (1997) Effects of airway obstruction on transmural pulmonary artery pressure in exercising racehorses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58, 897-903.
  • 23
    West, J.B., Mathieu-Costello, O., Jones, J.H., Birks, E.K., Logemann, R.B., Pascoe, J.R. and Tyler, W.S. (1993) Stress failure of pulmonary capillaries in racehorses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1097-1109.
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    McGorum, B.C., Ellison, J. and Cullen, R.T. (1998) Total and respirable airbourne dust endotoxin concentrations in three equine management systems. Equine Vet. J. 30, 430-434.
  • 25
    Newton, J.R. and Wood, J.L. (2002) Evidence of an association between inflammatory airway disease and EIPH in young Thoroughbreds during training. Equine Vet. J. Suppl. 34, 417-424.
  • 26
    Barakzai, S.Z., Boden, L.A. and Dixon, P.M. (2009) Race performance after laryngoplasty and ventriculocordectomy in National Hunt racehorses. Vet. Surg. 38, 941-945.