• 1
    Derksen, F.J., Holcombe, S.J., Hartmann, W., Robinson, N.E. and Stick, J.A. (2001) Spectrum analysis of respiratory sounds in exercising horses with experimentally induced laryngeal hemiplegia or dorsal displacement of the soft palate. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62, 659-664.
  • 2
    Kraus, B.M., Parente, E.J. and Tulleners, E.P. (2003) Laryngoplasty with ventriculectomy or ventriculocordectomy in 104 draft horses (1992-2000). Vet. Surg. 32, 530-538.
  • 3
    Brown, J.A., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Hartmann, W.M. and Robinson, N.E. (2004) Effect of laryngoplasty on respiratory noise reduction in horses with laryngeal hemiplegia. Equine Vet. J. 36, 420-425.
  • 4
    Dixon, P.M., McGorum, B.C., Railton, D.I., Hawe, C., Tremaine, W.H., Pickles, K. and McCann, J. (2002) Clinical and endoscopic evidence of progression in 152 cases of equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Equine Vet. J. 34, 29-34.
  • 5
    Hahn, C.N., Matiasek, K., Dixon, P.M., Molony, V., Rodenacker, K. and Mayhew, I.G. (2008) Histological and ultrastructural evidence that recurrent laryngeal neuropathy is a bilateral mononeuropathy limited to recurrent laryngeal nerves. Equine Vet. J. 40, 666-672.
  • 6
    Pascoe, J.R., Ferraro, G.L., Cannon, J.H., Arthur, R.M. and Wheat, J.D. (1981) Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in racing thoroughbreds: a preliminary study. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42, 703-707.
  • 7
    Raphel, C.F. (1982) Endoscopic findings in the upper respiratory tract of 479 horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 181, 470-473.
  • 8
    Anderson, B.H., Kannegieter, N.J. and Goulden, B.E. (1997) Endoscopic observations on laryngeal symmetry and movements in young racing horses. N. Z. Vet. J. 45, 188-192.
  • 9
    Brown, J.A., Hinchcliff, K.W., Jackson, M.A., Dredge, A.F., O'Callaghan, R.A., McCaffrey, J.R., Slocombe, R.F. and Clarke, A.F. (2005) Prevalence of pharyngeal and laryngeal abnormalities in Thoroughbreds racing in Australia, and their association with performance. Equine Vet. J. 37, 397-401.
  • 10
    Goulden, B.E., Anderson, L.J. and Cahill, J.I. (1985) Roaring in Clydesdales. N. Z. Vet. J. 33, 73-76.
  • 11
    Brakenhoff, J.E., Holcombe, S.J., Hauptman, J.G., Smith, H.K., Nickels, F.A. and Caron, J.P. (2006) The prevalence of laryngeal disease in a large population of competition draft horses. Vet. Surg. 35, 579-583.
  • 12
    Gunn, H.M. (1972) Histochemical observations on laryngeal skeletal muscle fibres in ‘normal’ horses. Equine Vet. J. 4, 144-148.
  • 13
    Cook, W.R. (1988) Hypotheses on exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 193, 8-10.
  • 14
    Collins, N., Milne, E., Hahn, C. and Dixon, P. (2009) Correlation of the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system with histopathological changes in equine cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscles. Ir. Vet. J. 62, 334-338.
  • 15
    Rhee, H.S., Steel, C.M., Derksen, F.J., Robinson, N.E. and Hoh, J.F. (2009) Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 57, 787-800.
  • 16
    Speirs, V.C. (1987) Laryngeal surgery-150 years on. Equine Vet. J. 19, 377-383.
  • 17
    Marks, D., Mackay-Smith, M.P., Cushing, L.S. and Leslie, J.A. (1970) Use of a prosthetic device for surgical correction of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 157, 157-163.
  • 18
    Russell, A.P. and Slone, D.E. (1994) Performance analysis after prosthetic laryngoplasty and bilateral ventriculectomy for laryngeal hemiplegia in horses: 70 cases (1986-1991). Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 204, 1235-1241.
  • 19
    Hawkins, J.F., Tulleners, E.P., Ross, M.W., Evans, L.H. and Raker, C.W. (1997) Laryngoplasty with or without ventriculectomy for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in 230 racehorses. Vet. Surg. 26, 484-491.
  • 20
    Kidd, J.A. and Slone, D.E. (2002) Treatment of laryngeal hemiplegia in horses by prosthetic laryngoplasty, ventriculectomy and vocal cordectomy. Vet. Rec. 150, 481-484.
  • 21
    Dixon, R.M., McGorum, B.C., Railton, D.I., Hawe, C., Tremaine, W.H., Dacre, K. and McCann, J. (2003) Long-term survey of laryngoplasty and ventriculocordectomy in an older, mixed-breed population of 200 horses. Part 1: maintenance of surgical arytenoid abduction and complications of surgery. Equine Vet. J. 35, 389-396. Erratum in: Equine Vet. J. 2003; 35:619.
  • 22
    Henderson, C.E., Sullins, K.E. and Brown, J.A. (2007) Transendoscopic, laser-assisted ventriculocordectomy for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in horses: 22 cases (1999-2005). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 231, 1868-1872.
  • 23
    Davidson, E.J. and Martin, B.B. Jr (2003) Diagnosis of upper respiratory tract diseases in the performance horse. Vet. Clin. N. Am.: Equine Pract. 19, 51-62.
  • 24
    Attenburrow, D.P. (1982) Resonant frequency of the lateral ventricle and saccule and whistling. In: Equine Exercise Physiology, Eds: D.H. Snow, S.G.B. Persson and R.J. Rose, Burlington Press, Cambridge. pp 27-32.
  • 25
    Brown, J.A., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Hartmann, W.M. and Robinson, N.E. (2003) Ventriculocordectomy reduces respiratory noise in horses with laryngeal hemiplegia. Equine Vet. J. 35, 570-574.
  • 26
    Robinson, P., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Sullins, K.E., DeTolve, P.G. and Robinson, N.E. (2006) Effects of unilateral laser-assisted ventriculocordectomy in horses with laryngeal hemiplegia. Equine Vet. J. 38, 491-496.
  • 27
    Dixon, P.M., McGorum, B.C., Railton, D.I., Hawe, C., Tremaine, W.H., Dacre, K. and McCann, J. (2003) Long-term survey of laryngoplasty and ventriculocordectomy in an older, mixed-breed population of 200 horses. Part 2: owners' assessment of the value of surgery. Equine Vet. J. 35, 397-401.
  • 28
    Tetens, J., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Lloyd, J.W. and Robinson, N.E. (1996) Efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty with and without bilateral ventriculocordectomy as treatments for laryngeal hemiplegia in horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57, 1668-1673.
  • 29
    Radcliffe, C.H., Woodie, J.B., Hackett, R.P., Ainsworth, D.M., Erb, H.N., Mitchell, L.M., Soderholm, L.V. and Ducharme, N.G. (2006) A comparison of laryngoplasty and modified partial arytenoidectomy as treatments for laryngeal hemiplegia in exercising horses. Vet. Surg. 35, 643-652.
  • 30
    Davidson, E.J., Martin, B.B., Boston, R.C. and Parente, E.J. (2011) Exercising upper respiratory videoendoscopic evaluation of 100 nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance. Equine Vet. J. 43, 3-8.
  • 31
    Rakesh, V., Ducharme, N.G., Cheetham, J., Datta, A.K. and Pease, A.P. (2008) Implications of different degrees of arytenoid cartilage abduction on equine upper airway characteristics. Equine Vet. J. 40, 629-635.
  • 32
    Lane, J.G., Bladon, B., Little, D.R., Naylor, J.R. and Franklin, S.H. (2006) Dynamic obstructions of the equine upper respiratory tract. Part 2: comparison of endoscopic findings at rest and during high-speed treadmill exercise of 600 Thoroughbred racehorses. Equine Vet. J. 38, 401-407.
  • 33
    Allen, K.J. and Franklin, S.H. (2010) Assessment of the exercise tests used during overground endoscopy in UK Thoroughbred racehorses and how these may affect the diagnosis of dynamic upper respiratory tract obstructions. Equine Vet. J. 38, 587-591.
  • 34
    Barakzai, S.Z., Boden, L.A. and Dixon, P.M. (2009) Postoperative race performance is not correlated with degree of surgical abduction after laryngoplasty in National Hunt Thoroughbred racehorses. Vet. Surg. 38, 934-940.
  • 35
    Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Scott, E.A., Robinson, N.E. and Slocombe, R.F. (1986) Effect of laryngeal hemiplegia and laryngoplasty on airway flow mechanics in exercising horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47, 16-20.
  • 36
    Morris, E.A. and Sheerman, H.J. (1990) Evaluation of upper respiratory tract function during strenuous exercise in racehorses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 196, 431-438.
  • 37
    Martin, B.B. Jr, Reef, V.B., Parente, E.J. and Sage, A.D. (2000) Causes of poor performance of horses during training, racing, or showing: 348 cases (1992-1996). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 216, 554-558.
  • 38
    Tan, R.H.H., Bradley, A.D. and Dart, A.J. (2005) High-speed treadmill videoendoscopic examination of upper respiratory tract in the horse: the results of 291 clinical cases. Vet. J. 170, 243-248.
  • 39
    Franklin, S.H., Naylor, J.R. and Lane, J.G. (2006) Videoendoscopic evaluation of the upper respiratory tract in 93 sport horses during exercise testing on a high-speed treadmill. Equine Vet. J. Suppl. 36, 540-545.
  • 40
    Strand, E. and Skjerve, E. (2012) Complex dynamic upper airway collapse: associations between abnormalities in 99 harness racehorses with one or more dynamic disorders. Equine Vet. J. 44, 524-528.
  • 41
    Cook, W.R. (1965) BEVA survey of equine disease 1962-63. Vet. Rec. 77, 528.
  • 42
    Parente, E.J., Martin, B.B., Tulleners, E.P. and Ross, M.W. (2002) Dorsal displacement of the soft palate in 92 horses during high-speed treadmill examination (1993-1998). Vet. Surg. 31, 507-512.
  • 43
    Bohanon, T.C., Beard, W.L. and Robertson, J.T. (1990) Laryngeal hemiplegia in draft horses. A review of 27 cases. Vet. Surg. 19, 456-459.
  • 44
    Cramp, P., Derksen, F.J., Stick, J.A., Nickels, F.A., Brown, K.E., Robinson, P. and Robinson, N.E. (2009) Effect of ventriculectomy versus ventriculocordectomy on upper airway noise in draught horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. Equine Vet. J. 41, 729-734.
  • 45
    Davidson, E.J., Martin, B.B., Rieger, R.H. and Parente, E.J. (2010) Exercising videoendoscopic evaluation of 45 horses with respiratory noise and/or poor performance after laryngoplasty. Vet. Surg. 39, 942-948.
  • 46
    Davenport-Goodall, C.L. and Parente, E.J. (2003) Disorders of the larynx. Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract. 19, 169-187.
  • 47
    King, D.S., Tulleners, E., Martin, B.B. Jr, Parente, E.J. and Boston, R. (2001) Clinical experiences with axial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds in 52 racehorses. Vet. Surg. 30, 151-160.