• 1
    USDA (2005) Last update [Homepage of USDA]. [Online]. Available:[November/22, 2010].
  • 2
    Freden, G.O., Provost, P.J. and Rand, W.M. (1998) Reliability of using results of abdominal fluid analysis to determine treatment and predict lesion type and outcome for horses with colic: 218 cases (1991-1994). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 213, 1012-1015.
  • 3
    Freeman, D.E., Hammock, P., Baker, G.J., Goetz, T., Foreman, J.H., Schaeffer, D.J., Richter, R.A., Inoue, O. and Magid, J.H. (2000) Short- and long-term survival and prevalence of postoperative ileus after small intestinal surgery in the horse. Equine Vet. J., Suppl. 32, 42-51.
  • 4
    Mair, T.S. and Smith, L.J. (2005) Survival and complication rates in 300 horses undergoing surgical treatment of colic. Part 3: long-term complications and survival. Equine Vet. J. 37, 310-314.
  • 5
    Pascoe, P.J., Ducharme, N.G., Ducharme, G.R. and Lumsden, J.H. (1990) A computer-derived protocol using recursive partitioning to aid in estimating prognosis of horses with abdominal pain in referral hospitals. Can. J. Vet. Res. 54, 373-378.
  • 6
    Pascoe, P.J., McDonell, W.N., Trim, C.M. and van Gorder, J. (1983) Mortality rates and associated factors in equine colic operations – a retrospective study of 341 operations. Can. Vet. J. 24, 76-85.
  • 7
    Phillips, T.J. and Walmsley, J.P. (1993) Retrospective analysis of the results of 151 exploratory laparotomies in horses with gastrointestinal disease. Equine Vet. J. 25, 427-431.
  • 8
    Proudman, C.J., Smith, J.E., Edwards, G.B. and French, N.P. (2002) Long-term survival of equine surgical colic cases. Part 2: modelling postoperative survival. Equine Vet. J. 34, 438-443.
  • 9
    Santschi, E.M., Slone, D.E., Embertson, R.M., Clayton, M.K. and Markel, M.D. (2000) Colic surgery in 206 juvenile thoroughbreds: survival and racing results. Equine Vet. J., Suppl. 32, 32-36.
  • 10
    Singer, E.R. and Livesey, M.A. (1997) Evaluation of exploratory laparotomy in young horses: 102 cases (1987-1992). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 211, 1158-1162.
  • 11
    Proudman, C.J., Smith, J.E., Edwards, G.B. and French, N.P. (2002) Long-term survival of equine surgical colic cases. Part 1: patterns of mortality and morbidity. Equine Vet. J. 34, 432-437.
  • 12
    Krista, K.M. and Kuebelbeck, K.L. (2009) Comparison of survival rates for geriatric horses versus nongeriatric horses following exploratory celiotomy for colic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 235, 1069-1072.
  • 13
    Wiemer, P., Bergman, H.J., van der Veen, H. and Pruissen, L. (2002) Colic surgery in the horse, a retrospective study of 272 patients. Tijdschr. Diergeneeskd 127, 682-686.
  • 14
    Van der Linden, M.A., Laffont, C.M. and Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. (2003) Prognosis in equine medical and surgical colic. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 17, 343-348.
  • 15
    Blikslager, A.T., Bowman, K.F., Levine, J.F., Bristol, D.G. and Roberts, M.C. (1994) Evaluation of factors associated with postoperative ileus in horses: 31 cases (1990-1992). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 205, 1748-1752.
  • 16
    Clabough, D.L. and Levine, J.F. (1991) Factors associated with the development of failure of transfer in standardbred foals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 5, 335-340.
  • 17
    Hosmer, D.W. (2000) Applied Logistic Regression, Wiley, New York.
  • 18
    Kleinbaum, D.G. (2010) Logistic Regression: A Self-Learning Text, Springer, New York.
  • 19
    Gibson, K.T., Curtis, C.R., Turner, A.S., Mcilwraith, C.W., Aanes, W.A. and Stashak, T.S. (1989) Incisional hernias in the horse. Incidence and predisposing factors. Vet. Surg. 18, 360-366.
  • 20
    Cohen, N.D. and Honnas, C.M. (1996) Risk factors associated with development of diarrhea in horses after celiotomy for colic: 190 cases (1990-1994). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 209, 810-813.
  • 21
    White, N.A., Moore, J.N. and Mair, T.S. (2008) The Equine Acute Abdomen, Teton NewMedia, Jackson, Wyoming.
  • 22
    Macdonald, M.H., Pascoe, J.R., Stover, S.M. and Meagher, D.M. (1989) Survival after small intestine resection and anastomosis in horses. Vet. Surg. 18, 415-423.
  • 23
    Tate, L.P., Ralston, S.L., Koch, C.M. and Everitt, J.I. (1983) Effects of extensive resection of the small-intestine in the pony. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44, 1187-1191.