EXPERIMENTAL AND BASIC RESEARCH STUDIES
Efficacy of epidural lidocaine combined with tramadol or neostigmine on perineal analgesia in the horse
Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012
© 2012 EVJ Ltd
Equine Veterinary Journal
Volume 45, Issue 4, pages 497–502, July 2013
How to Cite
Derossi, R., Módolo, T. J. C., Maciel, F. B. and Pagliosa, R. C. (2013), Efficacy of epidural lidocaine combined with tramadol or neostigmine on perineal analgesia in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal, 45: 497–502. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2012.00654.x
- Issue published online: 6 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 23 OCT 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 AUG 2012 05:10AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 19 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 22 SEP 2011
- perineal analgesia;
Reasons for performing study
Short duration of analgesia is among the limitations of a single epidural injection with lidocaine in horses.
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of epidural lidocaine in combination with either tramadol or neostigmine for perineal analgesia in horses.
Epidural catheters were placed in 6 saddle horses that then were given 3 treatments: 2% lidocaine (0.2 mg/kg bwt) alone, 2% lidocaine (0.2 mg/kg bwt) plus tramadol (0.5 mg/kg bwt), and 2% lidocaine (0.2 mg/kg bwt) plus neostigmine (1.0 μg/kg bwt). The order of treatments was randomised. Haemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, analgesia, motor block and behaviour scores were compared among the 3 treatments. These parameters were determined before drug administration (baseline), at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min, and every 30 min thereafter until loss of analgesia.
Duration of analgesia was longer with lidocaine plus tramadol (210 ± 12 min) compared with lidocaine plus neostigmine (150 ± 35 min) or lidocaine alone (70 ± 12 min; P<0.05). All treatments produced mild or moderate motor block without behavioural changes. Other adverse effects were not observed in any of the horses.
Conclusion and potential relevance
Further studies are required to demonstrate whether tramadol or neostigmine have a role in the management of post operative pain when coadministered with lidocaine.