• 1
    de Waal, D.T. and Van Heerden, J. (2004) Equine babesiosis. In: Infectious Diseases of Livestock, Ed: I. du Plessis, Oxford University Press, Cape Town. pp 425-434.
  • 2
    Sigg, L., Gerber, V., Gottstein, B., Doherr, M.G. and Frey, C.F. (2010) Seroprevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in the Swiss horse population. Parasitol. Int. 59, 313-317.
  • 3
    Short, M.A., Clark, C.K., Harvey, J.W., Wenzlow, N., Hawkins, I.K., Allred, D.R., Knowles, D.P., Corn, J.L., Grause, J.F., Hennager, S.G., Kitchen, D.L. and Traub-Dargatz, J.L. (2012) Outbreak of equine piroplasmosis in Florida. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 240, 588-595.
  • 4
    Mujica, F.F., Perrone, T., Forlano, M., Coronado, A., Meléndez, R.D., Barrios, N., Alvarez, R. and Granda, F. (2011) Serological prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in horses of Lara State Venezuela. Vet. Parasitol. 178, 180-183.
  • 5
    Abutarbush, S.M., Alqawasmeh, D.M., Mukbel, R.M. and Al-Majali, A.M. (2012) Equine babesiosis: seroprevalence, risk factors and comparison of different diagnostic methods in Jordan. Transbound Emerg. Dis. 59, 72-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2011.01244.x.
  • 6
    Sloboda, M., Jirků, M., Lukešová, D., Qablan, M., Batsukh, Z., Fiala, I., Hořín, P., Modrý, D. and Lukeš, J. (2011) A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia. Vet. Parasitol. 179, 246-249.
  • 7
    Donnellan, C., Page, P., Nurton, P., van den Berg, J.S. and Guthrie, A. (2003) Piroplasmosis - current trends. In: Conference Proceedings of the Equine Practitioners Group of South Africa, pp 86-87.
  • 8
    Vial, H.J. and Gorenflot, A. (2006) Chemotherapy against babesiosis. Vet. Parasitol. 138, 147-160.
  • 9
    Adams, L.G. (1981) Clinicopathological aspects of imidocarb dipropionate toxicity in horses. Res. Vet. Sci. 31, 54-61.
  • 10
    Phipps, L.P. (1996) Equine piroplasmosis. Equine Vet. Educ. 8, 33-36.
  • 11
    Donnellan, C. (2006) Effect of atropine and glycopyrrolate in ameliorating the clinical signs associated with the inhibition of cholinesterase activity by imidocarb dipropionate in horses. MMedVet Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria.
  • 12
    Geypens, B., Bennink, R., Peeters, M., Evenepoel, P., Mortelmans, L., Maes, B., Ghoos, Y. and Rutgeerts, P. (1999) Validation of the lactose-[13C]ureide breath test for determination of orocaecal transit time by scintigraphy. J. Nucl. Med. 40, 1451-1455.
  • 13
    Sutton, D.G.M., Preston, T. and Love, S. (2011a) In vitro validation of the lactose 13C-ureide breath test for equine orocaecal transit time measurement. Equine Vet. J. 43, Suppl. 39, 42-48.
  • 14
    Sutton, D.G.M., Preston, T. and Love, S. (2011b) Application of the lactose 13C-ureide breath test for measurement of equine orocaecal transit time. Equine Vet. J. 43, Suppl. 39, 49-55.
  • 15
    Schoeller, D.A., Klein, P.D., Watkins, J.B., Heim, T. and MacLean, W.C., Jr (1980) 13C abundances of nutrients and the effect of variations in 13C isotopic abundances of test meals formulated for 13CO2 breath tests. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 33, 2375-2385.
  • 16
    Wyse, C.A., Murphy, D.M., Preston, T., Morrison, D.J. and Love, S. (2001) Assessment of the rate of solid-phase gastric emptying in ponies by means of the 13C-octanoic acid breath test: a preliminary study. Equine Vet. J. 33, 197-203.
  • 17
    Gallivan, G.J., McDonell, W.N. and Forrest, J.B. (1989) Comparative ventilation and gas exchange in the horse and the cow. Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 331-336.
  • 18
    Orr, J.A., Bisgard, G.E., Forster, H.V., Rawlings, C.A., Buss, D.D. and Will, J.A. (1975) Cardiopulmonary measurements in nonanesthetized, resting normal ponies. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36, 1667-1670.
  • 19
    Maes, B.D., Ghoos, Y.F., Geypens, B.J., Mys, G., Hiele, M.I., Rutgeerts, P.J. and Vantrappen, G. (1994) Combined 13C-glycine/ 14C-octanoic acid breath test to monitor gastric emptying rates of liquids and solids. J. Nucl. Med. 35, 824-831.
  • 20
    Geypens, B. (2000) Use of Lactose Ureide Labelled with Stable Isotopes in the Study of Small Intestinal Transit and Colonic Metabolism. PhD Thesis, Leuven University, Leuven, 1-110.
  • 21
    Singh, S., McDonell, W.N., Young, S.S. and Dyson, D.H. (1996) Cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal motility effects of xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia in horses previously treated with glycopyrrolate. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57, 1762-1770.
  • 22
    Frerichs, W.M., Allen, P.C. and Holbrook, A.A. (1973) Equine piroplasmosis (Babesia equi): therapeutic trials of imidocarb dihydrochloride in horses and donkeys. Vet. Rec. 93, 73-75.
  • 23
    Corrier, D.E. and Adams, L.G. (1976) Clinical, histologic, and histochemical study of imidocarb dipropionate toxicosis in goats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 37, 811-816.
  • 24
    Belloli, C., Crescenzo, G., Lai, O., Carofiglio, V., Marang, O. and Ormas, P. (2002) Pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate in horses after intramuscular administration. Equine Vet. J. 34, 625-629.
  • 25
    Malone, E.D., Brown, D.R., Trent, A.M. and Turner, T.A. (1996) Influence of adrenergic and cholinergic mediators on the equine jejunum in vitro. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57, 884-890.
  • 26
    Sutton, D.G.M., Bahr, A., Preston, T., Cohen, N.D., Love, S. and Roussel, A.J. (2002) Quantitative detection of atropine-delayed gastric emptying in the horse by the 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Equine Vet. J. 34, 479-485.
  • 27
    Ducharme, N.G. and Fubini, S.L. (1983) Gastrointestinal complications associated with the use of atropine in horses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 182, 229-231.
  • 28
    Singh, S., McDonell, W., Young, S. and Dyson, D. (1997) The effect of glycopyrrolate on heart rate and intestinal motility in conscious horses. J. Vet. Anaesth. 24, 14-19.
  • 29
    Abdullah, A.S., Sheikh-Omar, A.R., Baggot, J.D. and Zamri, M. (1984) Adverse effects of imidocarb dipropionate (Imizol) in a dog. Vet. Res. Commun. 8, 55-59.
  • 30
    Mirakhur, R.K. and Dundee, J.W. (1980) Comparison of the effects of atropine and glycopyrrolate on various end-organs. J. R. Soc. Med. 73, 727-730.
  • 31
    Christian, M.T., Amarri, S., Franchini, F., Preston, T., Morrison, D.J., Dodson, B., Edwards, C.A. and Weaver, L.T. (2002) Modeling 13C breath curves to determine site and extent of starch digestion and fermentation in infants. J. Paediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 34, 158-164.
  • 32
    Morrison, D.J., Dodson, B., Slater, C. and Preston, T. (2000) 13C natural abundance in the British diet: implications for 13C breath tests. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 14, 1321-1324.
  • 33
    Rating, D. and Langhans, C.D. (1997) Breath tests: concepts, applications and limitations. Eur. J. Pediatr. 156, Suppl. 1, S18-S23.