• 1
    Pope, D.C. and Heslop, C.H. (1960) An outbreak of myoglobinuria in light horses. Can. Vet. J. 1, 171-174.
  • 2
    Finno, C.J., Valberg, S.J., Wunschmann, A. and Murphy, M.J. (2006) Seasonal pasture myopathy in horses in the midwestern United States: 14 cases (1998-2005). J. Am. Vet. Med. Ass. 229, 1134-1141.
  • 3
    Bowen, J.N. and Craig, J.F. (1942) Myoglobinuria in horses. Vet. Rec. 35, 354.
  • 4
    Whitwell, K.E., Harris, P. and Farrington, P.G. (1988) Atypical myoglobinuria: an acute myopathy in grazing horses. Equine Vet. J. 20, 357-363.
  • 5
    van Galen, G., Marcillaud, P.C., Saegerman, C., Patarin, F., Amory, H., Baily, J.D., Cassart, D., Gerber, V., Hahn, C., Harris, P., Keen, J.A., Kirschvink, N., Lefere, L., McGorum, B., Muller, J.M., Picavet, M.T., Piercy, R.J., Roscher, K., Serteyn, D., Unger, L., van der Kolk, J.H., van Loon G., Verwilghen, D., Westermann, C.M. and Votion, D.M. (2012) European outbreaks of atypical myopathy in grazing equids (2006-2009): spatiotemporal distribution, history and clinical features. Equine Vet. J. 44, 614-620.
  • 6
    Votion, D.M., Linden, A., Delguste, C., Amory, H., Thiry, E., Engels, P., van Galen, G., Navet, R., Sluse, F., Serteyn, D. and Saegerman, C. (2008) Atypical myopathy in grazing horses: a first exploratory data analysis. Vet. J. 180, 77-87.
  • 7
    Votion, D.M. and Serteyn, D. (2008) Equine atypical myopathy: a review. Vet. J. 178, 185-190.
  • 8
    Unger-Torroledo, L., Straub, R., Lehmann, A.D., Graber, F., Stahl, C., Frey, J., Gerber, V., Hoppeler, H. and Baum, O. (2010) Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii is associated with fatal equine atypical myopathy. Vet. Microbiol. 144, 487-492.
  • 9
    van der Kolk, J.H., Wijnberg, I.D., Westermann, C.M., Dorland, L., de Sain-van der Velden, M.G., Kranenburg, L.C., Duran, M., Dijkstra, J.A., van der Lugt, J.J., Wanders, R.J. and Gruys, E. (2010) Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum). Mol. Genet. Metab. 101, 289-291.
  • 10
    Cassart, D., Baise, E., Cherel, Y., Delguste, C., Antoine, N., Votion, D., Amory, H., Rollin, F., Linden, A., Coignoul, F. and Desmecht, D. (2007) Morphological alterations in oxidative muscles and mitochondrial structure associated with equine atypical myopathy. Equine Vet. J. 39, 26-32.
  • 11
    Westermann, C.M., Dorland, L., Votion, D.M., de Sain-van der Velden, M.G., Wijnberg, I.D., Wanders, R.J., Spliet, W.G., Testerink, N., Berger, R., Ruiter, J.P. and van der Kolk, J.H. (2008) Acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in 10 horses with atypical myopathy. Neuromuscul. Disord. 18, 355-364.
  • 12
    Sponseller, B.T., Valberg, S.J., Schultz, N.E., Bedford, H., Wong, D.M., Kersh, K. and Shelton, G.D. (2012) Equine multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with seasonal pasture myopathy in the Midwestern United States. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 26, 1012-1018.
  • 13
    Olsen, R.K., Andresen, B.S., Christensen, E., Bross, P., Skovby, F. and Gregersen, N. (2003) Clear relationship between ETF/ETFDH genotype and phenotype in patients with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency. Hum. Mutat. 22, 12-23.
  • 14
    Bosch, A.M., Abeling, N.G., Ijlst, L., Knoester, H., van der Pol, W.L., Stroomer, A.E., Wanders, R.J., Visser, G., Wijburg, F.A., Duran, M. and Waterham, H.R. (2011) Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio Londe syndrome is associated with a riboflavin transporter defect mimicking mild MADD: a new inborn error of metabolism with potential treatment. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 34, 159-164.
  • 15
    Frerman, F.E. and Goodman, S.I. (1985) Deficiency of electron transfer flavoprotein or electron transfer flavoprotein : ubiquinone oxidoreductase in glutaric acidemia type II fibroblasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82, 4517-4520.
  • 16
    Meda, H.A., Diallo, B., Buchet, J.P., Lison, D., Barennes, H., Ouangre, A., Sanou, M., Cousens, S., Tall, F. and Van de, P.P. (1999) Epidemic of fatal encephalopathy in preschool children in Burkina Faso and consumption of unripe ackee (Blighia sapida) fruit. Lancet 353, 536-540.
  • 17
    Joskow, R., Belson, M., Vesper, H., Backer, L. and Rubin, C. (2006) Ackee fruit poisoning: an outbreak investigation in Haiti 2000-2001, and review of the literature. Clin. Toxicol. (Phila) 44, 267-273.
  • 18
    Fowden, L. and Pratt, H.M. (1972) Cyclopropylamino acids of the genus Acer: distribution and biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 12, 1677-1681.
  • 19
    Schultz, N. (2010) Assessment of intramyofiber lipid content in horses. ACVIM Forum: 2010; Anaheim, California: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine: 780-781.
  • 20
    Cumming, W.J.K., Fulthorpe, J.J., Hudgson, P. and Mahon, M. (1994) Color Atlas of Muscle Pathology, Mosby-Wolfe, London.
  • 21
    Rashed, M.S., Bucknall, M.P., Little, D., Awad, A., Jacob, M., Alamoudi, M., Alwattar, M. and Ozand, P.T. (1997) Screening blood spots for inborn errors of metabolism by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with a microplate batch process and a computer algorithm for automated flagging of abnormal profiles. Clin. Chem. 43, 1129-1141.
  • 22
    Sweetman, L. (1991) Organic acid analysis. In: Techniques in Diagnostic Human Biochemical Genetics: A Laboratory Manual, Ed: F.A. Hommes , WileyLiss Inc, New York. pp 143-176.
  • 23
    Chen, W.P., Yang, X.Y., Hegeman, A.D., Gray, W.M. and Cohen, J.D. (2010) Microscale analysis of amino acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 878, 2199-2208.
  • 24
    Tanaka, K., Isselbacher, K.J. and Shih, V. (1972) Isovaleric and -methylbutyric acidemias induced by hypoglycin A: mechanism of Jamaican vomiting sickness. Science 175, 69-71.
  • 25
    Salaun, J. (2000) Cyclopropane derivatives and their diverse biological activities. Top. Curr. Chem. 207, 2-20.
  • 26
    Kean, E.R. (1989) Hypoglycin. In: Toxicants of Plant Origin, Ed: P.R. Cheeke , CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp 229-262.
  • 27
    Saraya, A. and Madan, K. (2008) Toxic liver injury. In: Tropical Hepatogastroenterology, Ed: B.N. Tandon , Elsevier, New Delhi, India. pp 344-353.
  • 28
    Ikeda, Y. and Tanaka, K. (1990) Selective inactivation of various acyl-CoA dehydrogenases by (methylenecyclopropyl)acetyl-CoA. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1038, 216-221.
  • 29
    Gregersen, N. (1985) The acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiencies. Recent advances in the enzymic characterization and understanding of the metabolic and pathophysiological disturbances in patients with acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiencies. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. Suppl. 174, 1-60.
  • 30
    Barceloux, D.G. (2008) Akee fruit and Jamaican Vomiting Sickness (Blighia sapida Köenig). In: Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Toxic Plants, and Venomous Animals, Ed: D.G. Barceloux , John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. pp 34-38.
  • 31
    Wenz, A., Thorpe, C. and Ghisla, S. (1981) Inactivation of general acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig kidney by a metabolite of hypoglycin A. J. Biol. Chem. 256, 9809-9812.
  • 32
    Sherrat, H.S.A. (1986) Hypoglycin, the famous toxin of unripe Jamaican ackee fruit. Trends Pharm. Sci. 7, 186-191.
  • 33
    Blake, O.A., Bennink, M.R. and Jackson, J.C. (2006) Ackee (Blighia sapida) hypoglycin A toxicity: dose response assessment in laboratory rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 44, 207-213.
  • 34
    Mêdrzycki, P. (2012) Invasive alien species fact sheet – Acer negundo. Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species – NOBANIS. Accessed 6-10-2012.
  • 35
    Bowen-Forbes, C.S. and Minott, D.A. (2011) Tracking hypoglycins A and B over different maturity stages: implications for detoxification of ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59, 3869-3875.