The flow of granular solids through circular orifices



It has been shown that the use of the bulk density term in place of the particle density, in the equation of flow for granular solids passing through a circular orifice, very largely eliminates differences due to the shape, rugosity, density, porosity and friction of the particles.

The equation

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has been tested on seven different materials and has been found to predict the flow of single and binary systems with an overall accuracy of ±5% and ±10% respectively.