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The transport characteristics of amino β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin and cephradine, have been examined and compared with that of glycylglycine using brush border membrane vesicles isolated from rat small intestine. The initial rate of glycylglycine uptake was markedly stimulated in the presence of an inward H + gradient compared with the uptake rates in the absence of an H + gradient. With the same H + gradient the stimulation of cephradine uptake was lower and ampicillin uptake was not altered. Cephradine uptake, however, was greater than that of glycylglycine in both vesicular conditions ((pH)i > (pH)0 and (pH)i = (pH)0). Inhibitory effects of dipeptides, ampicillin and cephradine on the initial uptake of glycylglycine were also examined. Glycylglycine uptake was significantly decreased in the presence of L-phenylalanylglycine or carnosine. Ampicillin and cephradine did not alter the uptake of glycylglycine. These results suggest that the contribution of the inward H+ gradient to the permeation of ampicillin, cephradine and glycylglycine across the rat small intestinal brush border membranes is different for each of the substances examined.