• inhalation;
  • nanoporous/nanoparticulate microparticles;
  • spray-drying;
  • trypsin


Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine if spray-drying could successfully produce microparticles containing the model protein trypsin in a form suitable for inhalation.

Methods  Trypsin was spray-dried with raffinose from a methanol : n-butyl acetate solvent system (MeOH : BA). The solvent system was then adjusted to include water, and trypsin was co-spray-dried with raffinose, trehalose or hydroxpropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The spray-dried products were characterised by SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA and FTIR. Protein biological activity and in-vitro deposition of trypsin : excipient nanoporous/nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) was also assessed.

Key findings  The inclusion of water in a MeOH : BA solvent system allowed for the successful production of NPMPs of trypsin : excipient by spray-drying. Trypsin formulated as trypsin : excipient NPMPs retained biological activity on processing and showed no deterioration in activity or morphological characteristics when stored with desiccant at either 4 or 25°C. Hydroxpropyl-β-cyclodextrin showed advantages over the sugars in terms of producing powders with appropriate density and with greater physical stability under high-humidity conditions. Fine particle fractions of between 41 and 45% were determined for trypsin : excipient NPMPs.

Conclusions  NPMPs of trypsin : excipient systems can be produced by spray-drying by adjustment of the solvent system to allow for adequate solubility of trypsin.