Intranasal delivery of insulin via the olfactory nerve pathway
Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012
© 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Volume 64, Issue 12, pages 1709–1714, December 2012
How to Cite
Renner, D. B., Svitak, A. L., Gallus, N. J., Ericson, M. E., Frey, W. H. and Hanson, L. R. (2012), Intranasal delivery of insulin via the olfactory nerve pathway. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 64: 1709–1714. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01555.x
- Issue published online: 12 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012
- Received January 20, 2012; Accepted May 22, 2012
- Alzheimer's disease;
- olfactory bulbs;
- olfactory nerve pathway
Objectives Intranasal delivery has been shown to target peptide therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) of animal models and induce specific neurological responses. In an investigation into the pathways by which intranasal administration delivers insulin to the CNS, this study has focused on the direct delivery of insulin from the olfactory mucosa to the olfactory bulbs via the olfactory nerve pathway.
Methods Nasal and olfactory tissues of mice were imaged with fluorescent and electron microscopy 30 min following intranasal administration.
Key findings Macroscopic analysis confirmed delivery to the anterior regions of the olfactory bulbs. Confocal microscopy captured delivery along the olfactory nerve bundles exiting the nasal mucosa, traversing the cribriform plate and entering the bulbs. With electron microscopy, insulin was found within cells of the olfactory nerve layer and glomerular layer of the olfactory bulbs.
Conclusions These results demonstrated that intranasal administration of labelled insulin targeted the CNS through the olfactory nerve pathway in mice.