Anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory properties of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 in cultured macrophages and keratinocytes
Article first published online: 22 OCT 2012
© 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012. Royal Pharmaceutical Society
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Volume 65, Issue 2, pages 310–316, February 2013
How to Cite
Choi, W.-Y., Lim, H.-W. and Lim, C.-J. (2013), Anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory properties of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 in cultured macrophages and keratinocytes. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 65: 310–316. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01598.x
- Issue published online: 26 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 22 OCT 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Received: 19 MAY 2012
- Ministry of Health & Welfare. Grant Number: A103017
- matrix metalloproteinase;
- nitric oxide;
- reactive oxygen species
This work aimed to assess the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory and related pharmacological actions of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 (20(R)-Rh2) in cultured macrophages and keratinocytes.
In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 20(R)-Rh2 was evaluated by analysing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contents in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Its antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the macrophage and keratinocyte cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activity in the culture medium was detected using zymography.
20(R)-Rh2 was able to suppress NO, PGE2, ROS and pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) levels that were enhanced in the LPS-stimulated murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. 20(R)-Rh2 also exhibited inhibitory effects on the level of ROS and the activity of MMP-9 and -2 in human HaCat keratinocyte cells without stimulant exposure. 20(R)-Rh2 could suppress the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 enhanced by tumour necrosis factor-α in the keratinocytes.
20(R)-Rh2, a minor stereoisomer of ginsenoside Rh2, possesses matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity.