• 1
    The Upledger Institute International. Frequently asked questions – Craniosacral therapy [website]. Palm Beach Gardens, FL: The Upledger Institute International, 2011. <> , accessed January 18, 2012.
  • 2
    Tsao JC, Meldrum M, Kim SC et al. Treatment preferences for CAM in children with chronic pain. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007; 4: 367374.
  • 3
    Harrison RE, Page JS. Multipractitioner Upledger Craniosacral therapy: descriptive outcome study 2007–2008. J Altern Complement Med 2012; 17: 1317.
  • 4
    Low E, Murray DM, O'Mahony O, O'B Hourihane J. Complementary and alternative medicine use in Irish paediatric patients. Ir J Med Sci 2008; 177: 147150.
  • 5
    Raviv G, Shefi S, Nizani D, Achiron A. Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2009; 15: 7275.
  • 6
    Gillespie BR. Case study in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the corrective aspect of craniosacral fascial therapy. Explore (NY) 2009; 5: 296298.
  • 7
    Gillespie BR. Case study in pediatric asthma: the corrective aspect of craniosacral fascial therapy. Explore (NY) 2008; 4: 4851.
  • 8
    Gerdner LA, Hart LK, Zimmerman MB. Craniosacral still point technique: exploring its effects in individuals with dementia. J Gerontol Nurs 2008; 34: 3645.
  • 9
    Hamm D. A hypothesis to explain the palpatory experience and therapeutic claims in the practice of osteopathy in the cranial field. Int J Osteopath Med 2011; 14: 149165.
  • 10
    Sandhouse ME, Shechtman D, Sorkin R et al. Effect of osteopathy in the cranial field on visual function – a pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2010; 110: 239243.
  • 11
    Sergueef N, Nelson KE, Glonek T. The effect of cranial manipulation on the Traube-Hering-Mayer oscillation as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Altern Ther Health Med 2002; 8(6): 7476.
  • 12
    Cutler MJ, Holland BS, Stupski BA et al. Cranial manipulation can alter sleep latency and sympathetic nerve activity in humans: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11: 103108.
  • 13
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carrol D et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials – is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 14
    Hanten WP, Olson SL, Hodson JL et al. The effectiveness of CV-4 and resting position techniques on subjects with tension-type headaches. J Man Manip Ther 1999; 7: 6470.
  • 15
    Hayden C, Mullinger B. A preliminary assessment of the impact of cranial osteopathy for the relief of infant colic. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006; 12: 8390.
  • 16
    Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Castro-Sánchez AM, García GC et al. Influence of craniosacral therapy on anxiety, depression and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011: Article ID 178769.
  • 17
    Castro-Sánchez AM, Matarán-Peñarrocha GA, Sánchez-Labraca N et al. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of craniosacral therapy on pain and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia patients. Clin Rehabil 2011; 25: 2535.
  • 18
    Curtis P, Gaylord SA, Park J et al. Credibility of low-strength static magnet therapy as an attention control intervention for a randomized controlled study of Craniosacral therapy for migraine headaches. J Altern Complement Med 2011; 17: 711721.
  • 19
    Wyatt K, Edwards V, Franck L et al. Cranial osteopathy for children with cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2011; 96: 505512.
  • 20
    Green C, Martin CW, Bassett K, Kazanjian A. A systematic review of craniosacral therapy: biological plausibility; assessment reliability and clinical effectiveness. Complement Ther Med 1999; 7: 201207.
  • 21
    Jäkel A, von Hauenschild P. Therapeutic effects of cranial osteopathic manipulative medicine: a systematic review. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2011; 111: 685693.
  • 22
    Hartman SE, Norton JM. Craniosacral therapy is not medicine. Phys Ther 2002; 82: 11461147.
  • 23
    Whedon JM, Glassey D. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance. Altern Ther Health Med 2009; 15(3): 5460.
  • 24
    Downey PA, Barbano T, Kapur-Wadhwa R et al. Craniosacral therapy: the effects of cranial manipulation on intracranial pressure and cranial bone movement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2006; 36: 845853.
  • 25
    Moran RW, Gibbons P. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability for palpation of the cranial rhythmic impulse at the head and sacrum. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2001; 24: 183190.
  • 26
    van Dam FS, Renckens CN. Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery. [In Dutch.] Ned Tijddschr Geneeskd 2010; 154: A1814.
  • 27
    Ernst E, Pittler MH. Alternative therapy bias. Nature 1997; 385: 480.