The first objective of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between types of goal orientation, self-regulatory processes and school performance and the second was to examine how students' self-regulation and academic performance differ according to their profiles resulting from combining learning and performance goals orientation. A total of 702 college students (463 females and 239 males) was administered a questionnaire assessing their orientation toward learning and performance goals, and reported their self-regulatory strategies for studying. Results showed that both for males and females there exist systematic relations between learning goal and self-regulation and academic achievement. Relations were also found for performance goal, but for boys only. Results also showed that, among the four profiles of goal orientation, more self-regulatory strategies were reported and higher academic performance was achieved by students having high concern with both learning and performance goals than by the others. More girls were classified in this profile, but in each profile girls were found to report more self-regulatory strategies and to achieve higher academic performance than did boys. Overall, these findings are consistent with those of previous studies conducted with younger students. Although adhesion to learning goal has a positive impact on self-regulation both for girls and boys, for the latter adhesion to performance goal can also be helpful. In view of the role of goal orientation on self-regulation in academic activities, research is needed to identify and understand the nature of the determinants of both the adhesion to these profiles and the gender differences.