Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement
Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012
©2012 The British Psychological Society
British Journal of Educational Psychology
Volume 83, Issue 2, pages 329–340, June 2013
How to Cite
Villavicencio, F. T. and Bernardo, A. B. I. (2013), Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83: 329–340. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02064.x
- Issue published online: 21 MAY 2013
- Article first published online: 24 FEB 2012
- Received 16 February 2011; revised version received 02 September 2011
Background. Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models, particularly with negative emotions.
Aims. The study tested the hypotheses: (1) self-regulation and the positive academic emotions of enjoyment and pride are positive predictors of achievement; and (2) enjoyment and pride both moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement.
Sample. Participants were 1,345 students enrolled in various trigonometry classes in one university.
Methods. Participants answered the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Math (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005) and a self-regulation scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) halfway through their trigonometry class. The students’ final grades in the course were regressed to self-regulation, positive emotions, and the interaction terms to test the moderation effects.
Results and Conclusions. Enjoyment and pride were both positive predictors of grades; more importantly, both moderated the relationship between self-regulation and grades. For students who report higher levels of both positive emotions, self-regulation was positively associated with grades. However, for those who report lower levels of pride, self-regulation was not related to grades; and, for those who reported lower levels of enjoyment, self-regulation was negatively related to grades. The results are discussed in terms of how positive emotions indicate positive appraisals of task/outcome value, and thus enhance the positive links between cognitive/motivational variables and learning.