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The role of self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and preparatory planning in predicting short-term smoking relapse

Authors

  • I. Elfeddali,

    Corresponding author
    1. Care and Public Health Research Institute (Caphri), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • C. Bolman,

    1. Department of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, The Netherlands
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  • M. J. J. M Candel,

    1. Care and Public Health Research Institute (Caphri), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Methodology and Statistics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • R. W. Wiers,

    1. Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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  • H. De Vries

    1. Care and Public Health Research Institute (Caphri), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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Iman Elfeddali, Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, the Netherlands  (e-mail: iman.elfeddali@maastrichtuniversity.nl).

Abstract

Objectives. This study aims to identify the role of self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and preparatory planning with regard to short-term smoking relapse. We also assessed whether the importance of these variables differed for smokers quitting individually and without help (self-quitters) and smokers quitting with the help of a smoking cessation course (group quitters).

Design. A longitudinal quasi-experimental study with follow-ups at 1 and 3 months after the quit attempt was conducted in order to assess the role of baseline self-efficacy, recovery self-efficacy, and preparatory planning on short-term relapse.

Methods. The recruitment included adult daily smokers (N= 121), quitting in a smoking cessation course (N= 57) and self-quitters (N= 64). Respondents received internet-based questionnaires 2 weeks before quitting (baseline) and 1 and 3 months after the quit attempt. Predictors of relapse were analysed using logistic regression analyses.

Results. Relapse at 1 and 3 months after the quit attempt was predicted by low levels of baseline self-efficacy. Simple slope analyses revealed that less preparatory planning significantly predicted relapse at 1 month after the quit attempt among group quitters, but not among self-quitters. Recovery self-efficacy was only predictive of relapse after 1 month when self-efficacy was excluded from the analyses. Moreover, among group quitters, the results indicated a borderline significant curved relation between recovery self-efficacy and relapse after 1 month.

Conclusions. Our results suggest that more research is needed on the role of preparatory planning and recovery self-efficacy. Moreover, we recommend incorporating self-efficacy increasing techniques in relapse-prevention interventions.

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