Having condoms available has been shown to be an important predictor of condom use. We examined whether or not personal norm and goal enjoyment contribute to predicting having condoms available in the context of cognition specified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB).


Prospective survey study, with a baseline and follow-up measurement (at 3 months).


Data were gathered using an online survey. In total 282 adolescents (mean age = 15.6, 74% female adolescents) completed both questionnaires. At baseline, demographics, sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, descriptive norm, personal norm, and enjoyment towards having condoms available were measured. At T2 (3 months later) having condoms available was measured. Direct and moderating effects of personal norm and goal enjoyment were examined by means of hierarchical linear regression analyses.


Regression analyses yielded a direct effect of self-efficacy and personal norm on condom availability. In addition, moderation of the intention-behaviour relation by goal enjoyment added to the variance explained. The final model explained approximately 35% of the variance in condom availability.


Personal norm and goal enjoyment add to the predictive utility of a TPB model of having condoms available and may be useful intervention targets.

Statement of contribution

What is already known about this subject?

  • Having condoms available is an important prerequisite for actual condom use.
  • The theory of planned behaviour has successfully been applied to explain condom availability behaviour.
  • The theory of planned behaviour has been criticized for not adequately taking into account affective motivation.

What does this study add?

  • Personal norm and goal enjoyment add to the predictive utility of the model.
  • Personal norm explains condom availability directly, enjoyment increases intention enactment.
  • Personal norm and goal enjoyment therefore are useful intervention targets.