Retracted: When failure feels better than success: Self-salience, self-consistency, and affect

Authors

  • Marret K. Noordewier,

    Corresponding author
    1. Tilburg Centre for Cognition and Communication (TICC) & Tilburg Institute of Behavioral Economics Research, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
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  • Diederik A. Stapel

    1. Tilburg Centre for Cognition and Communication (TICC) & Tilburg Institute of Behavioral Economics Research, Tilburg University, The Netherlands
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Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Retraction statement: When failure feels better than success: Self-salience, self-consistency, and affect Volume 51, Issue 2, 404, Article first published online: 27 April 2012

Correspondence should be addressed to Marret K. Noordewier, Tilburg Centre for Cognition and Communication (TICC), Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands (e-mail: m.k.noordewier@uvt.nl).

Abstract

People like self-consistent feedback because it induces feelings of predictability and control, but they like positive feedback because it induces positive self-esteem. We show that self-salience determines whether people are more consistency- or positivity-driven. When self-knowledge is salient, people's primary responses (i.e., under load) are consistency-driven (people with low self-esteem feel better after negative feedback than after positive feedback, whereas people with high self-esteem feel better after positive feedback than after negative feedback) and controlled responses are positivity-driven (people feel better after positive feedback than after negative feedback, regardless of self-consistency). Without salient self-knowledge this pattern reverses: people's primary responses are positivity-driven, whereas people's controlled responses are consistency-driven.

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