Motivated use of information about others: Linking the 2 × 2 achievement goal model to social comparison propensities and processes


Lënda Bounoua Laboratoire de Psychologie Cognitive (LPC), Pôle 3C (Comportement, Cognition, Cerveau), UMR CNRS 6146-Université de Provence, Case D, Centre Saint Charles, 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331, Marseille Cedex 3, France (e-mail:


The present research used correlational and experimental methods and two well-established social comparison paradigms to integrate and extend prior research from the achievement goal and social comparison literatures. In Study 1, a general disposition to engage in social comparison was positively correlated with each type of goal in the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals, suggesting that the desire to seek out social comparison information is not exclusive to a particular type of achievement goal pursuit. In Study 2, when evaluating the specific direction of social comparison (upward or downward), the pursuit of performance-approach, mastery-approach, and mastery-avoidance goals facilitated upward social comparison, and the pursuit of performance-avoidance goals prompted a shift away from upward comparison towards downward comparison. The present findings provide new insight to the emerging integration of achievement goals and social comparison.