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Studies have shown a strong negative correlation between counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), and opposite correlations with hypothesized antecedents. Such observed correlations may have been erroneously caused by three measurement artefacts: items measuring absence of CWBs, rather than behaviours that exceed requirements or expectations in OCB scales; supervisory halo; and agreement rather than frequency response format. A new OCB scale, the OCB-checklist (OCB-C) was used that did not have these artefacts. Contrary to prior expectations from the literature, positive relations were found between CWB and OCB, and stressors and OCB. Theoretical explanations for positive CWB/OCB relations (demand-elicited OCB, social loafing, work process problems, rater perceptions and attributions, and aggravated job stress processes) are discussed.