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Rater training revisited: An updated meta-analytic review of frame-of-reference training


  • An earlier version of this study was presented at the 2010 annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Psychology.

Sylvia G. Roch, Department of Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, USA (e-mail:


The present study updates Woehr and Huffcutt's (1994) rater training meta-analysis and demonstrates that frame-of-reference (FOR) training is an effective method of improving rating accuracy. The current meta-analysis includes over four times as many studies as included in the Woehr and Huffcutt meta-analysis and also provides a snapshot of current rater training studies. The present meta-analysis also extends the previous meta-analysis by showing that not all operationalizations of accuracy are equally improved by FOR training; Borman's differential accuracy appears to be the most improved by FOR training, along with behavioural accuracy, which provides a snapshot into the cognitive processes of the raters. We also investigate the extent to which FOR training protocols differ, the implications of protocol differences, and if the criteria of interest to FOR researchers have changed over time.