Background. People with personality disorders, especially those who also experience high self-criticism and shame, are known to be a therapeutic challenge and there is a high dropout rate from therapy. Compassion-focused therapy (CFT) was designed to address shame and self-criticism specifically, and to develop people's ability to be self-reassuring and more compassionate to themselves and others.
Aims. This study explored how CFT affected self-criticism and self-attacking thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, as well as the general symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression of a personality disordered group within an outpatient group setting, and evaluated the extent of maintenance at a 1-year follow-up. A secondary objective was to identify some of the key characteristics that such an intervention would require. This was a pilot study exploring the feasibility, acceptability, and potential value of CFT in treating this difficult population and, as such, was designed as a pre-randomized controlled trial (RCT) to provide evidence to support applications for funding for an RCT.
Methods and design. This study utilized a mixed method combining qualitative and quantitative methods to support a programme evaluation. Eight participants were introduced to the evolutionary-based CFT model and taken through explorations of the nature of self-criticism and shame. In subsequent sessions, participants were taught the main compassion-focused exercises, and any difficulties were addressed. The group was asked to share their personal stories and experiences of practicing self-compassion and to develop compassionate encouragement for each other. Self-report measures were administered at the beginning, end, and at a 1-year follow-up.
Results. This 16-week group therapy was associated with significant reductions in shame measured by the Others as Shamer Scale (OAS), social comparison on the Social Comparison Scale (SCS) feelings of hating oneself, and an increase in abilities to be self-reassuring on the Self-Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), depression and stress measured by the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). There were significant changes on all CORE variables, well-being, risk, functioning, and problems. Also interesting was that all variables showed a trend for continued improvement at 1-year follow-up, albeit statistically non-significant. A content analysis revealed that patients had found it a moving and very significant process in their efforts to develop emotional regulation and self-understanding.
Conclusion. CFT, delivered in a routine psychotherapy department for personality disorders, revealed a beneficial impact on a range of outcome measures. These improvements were maintained and further changes noted at 1-year follow-up. Further research is needed to explore the benefits of CFT using more detailed analysis and RCTs.