Varicocoele is defined as excessive dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus of the spermatic cord. Varicocoele frequently appears during early puberty and is recognized to be the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. However, the actual incidence in adolescents, pathophysiology and the association with male factor infertility all remain somewhat controversial. The most accurate diagnostic technique for identifying young men who will benefit from surgical treatment has yet to be established. Observations of testicular asymmetry and deteriorating semen quality helped establish current guidelines and recommendations for surgical treatment. Further studies, comparing observation with surgical intervention, are needed to refine the current indications for varicocoele repair in the adolescent male.