SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Behre HM, Kliesch S, Schädel F & Nieschlag E. (1995) Clinical relevance of scrotal and transrectal ultrasonography in andrological patients. Int J Androl 18(Suppl. 2), 2731.
  • Bergmann M, Behre HM & Nieschlag E. (1994) Serum FSH and testicular morphology in male infertility. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 40, 133136.
  • Dacheux JL, Chevier C & Lanson Y. (1987) Motility and surface transformations of human spermatozoa during epididymal transit. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 513, 560563.
  • Dogra VS, Gottlieb RH, Oka M & Rubens DJ. (2003) Sonography of the scrotum. Radiology 227, 1836.
  • Du J, Li FH, Guo YF, Yang LM, Zheng JF, Chen B, Zhu JS & Liu Q. (2010) Differential diagnosis of azoospermia and etiologic classification of obstructive azoospermia: role of scrotal and transrectal US. Radiology 256, 493503.
  • von Eckardstein S, Simoni M, Bergmann M, Weinbauer GF, Gassner P, Schepers AG & Nieschlag E. (1999) Serum inhibin B in combination with serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a more sensitive marker than serum FSH alone for impaired spermatogenesis in men, but cannot predict the presence of sperm in testicular tissue samples. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84, 24962501.
  • Francavilla S, Bianco MA, Cordeschi G, D'Abrizio P, De Stefano C, Properzi G & Francavilla F. (2001) Ultrastructural analysis of chromatin defects in testicular spermatids in azoospermic men submitted to TESE-ICSI. Hum Reprod 16, 14401448.
  • Franchimont P, Millet D, Vendrely E, Letawe J, Legros JJ & Netter A. (1972) Relationship between spermatogenesis and serum gonadotropin levels in azoospermia and oligospermia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34, 10031008.
  • Fuse H, Takahara M, Ishii H, Sumiya H & Shimazaki J. (1990) Measurement of testicular volume by ultrasonography. Int J Androl 13, 267272.
  • Hanley JA & McNeil BJ. (1983) A method of comparing the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves derived from the same cases. Radiology 148, 839843.
  • Hinrichsen MJ & Blaquier JA. (1980) Evidence supporting the existence of sperm maturation in the human epididymis. J Reprod Fertil 60, 291294.
  • Holstein AF & Schirren C. (1983) Histological evidence of testicular biopsies. In: Advances in Andrology, Vol. 8 (eds C Schirren & AF Holstein), pp. 109117. Grosse, Berlin.
  • Jensen TK, Andersson AM, Hjollund NH, Scheike T, Kolstad H, Giwercman A et al. (1997) Inhibin B as a serum marker of spermatogenesis: correlation to differences in sperm concentration and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. A study of 349 Danish men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 40594063.
  • Kliesch S, Behre HM & Nieschlag E. (1994) High efficacy of gonadotropin or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatment in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal men. Eur J Endocrinol 131, 347354.
  • de Kretser DM, Burger HG, Fortune D, Hudson B, Long AR, Paulsen CA & Taft HP. (1972) Hormonal, histological and chromosomal studies in adult males with testicular disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 35, 392401.
  • de Kretser DM, Huidobro C, Southwick GJ & Temple-Smith PD. (1998) The role of epididymis in human infertility. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 53, 271275.
  • Lenz S, Giwercman A, Elsborg A, Cohr KH, Jelnes JE, Carlsen E & Skakkebaek NE. (1993) Ultrasonic testicular texture and size in 444 men from the general population: correlation to semen quality. Eur Urol 24, 231238.
  • Lenz S, Thomsen JK, Giwercman A, Hertel NT, Hertz J & Skakkebaek NE. (1994) Ultrasonic texture and volume of testicles in infertile men. Hum Reprod 9, 878881.
  • Mahmoud AM, Comhaire FH & Depuydt CE. (1998) The clinical and biologic significance of serum inhibins in subfertile men. Reprod Toxicol 12, 591599.
  • Meeker JD, Godfrey-Bailey L & Hauser R. (2007) Relationships between serum hormone levels and semen quality among men from an infertility clinic. J Androl 28, 397406.
  • Moon MH, Kim SH, Cho JY, Seo JT & Chun YK. (2006) Scrotal US for evaluation of infertile men with azoospermia. Radiology 239, 168173.
  • Moore HDM, Hartmann TD & Pryor JP. (1983) Development of the oocyte-penetrating capacity of spermatozoa in the human epididymis. Int J Androl 6, 310318.
  • Nashan D, Behre HM, Grunert JH & Nieschlag E. (1990) Diagnostic value of scrotal sonography in infertile men: report on 658 cases. Andrologia 22, 387395.
  • Nicopoullos JD, Gilling-Smith C, Almeida PA, Norman-Taylor J, Grace I & Ramsay JW. (2004) Use of surgical sperm retrieval in azoospermic men: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 82, 691701.
  • Oyen RH. (2002) Scrotal ultrasound. Eur Radiol 12, 1934.
  • Pelliccione F, Cordeschi G, Giuliani V, Dabrizio P, Necozione S, Negri L et al. (2004) The contractile wall of the caput epididymis in men affected by congenital or postinflammatory obstructive azoospermia. J Androl 25, 417425.
  • Pelliccione F, D'Angeli A, Cordeschi G, Mihalca R, Ciociola F, Necozione S, Francavilla F & Francavilla S. (2009) Seminal macrophages in ejaculates from men with couple infertility. Int J Androl 32, 623628.
  • Pelliccione F, D'Angeli A, Cinque B, Falone S, Micillo A, Francavilla F, Amicarelli F, Gandini L & Francavilla S. (2011) Activation of the immune system and sperm DNA fragmentation are associated with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratospermia in men with couple subfertility. Fertil Steril 95, 676679.
  • Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in collaboration with the Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. (2008a) Evaluation of the azoospermic male. Fertil Steril 90(Suppl. 3), 7477.
  • Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine in collaboration with the Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. (2008b) The management of infertility due to obstructive azoospermia. Fertil Steril 90(Suppl. 3), 121124.
  • Pühse G, Hense J, Bergmann M & Kliesch S. (2011) Bilateral histological evaluation of exocrine testicular function in men with obstructive azoospermia: condition of spermatogenesis and andrological implications? Hum Reprod 26, 26062612.
  • Puttemans T, Delvigne A & Murillo D. (2006) Normal and variant appearances of the adult epididymis and vas deferens on high-resolution sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 34, 385392.
  • Rifkin MD, Kurtz AB & Goldberg BB. (1984) Epididymis examined by ultrasound. Correlation with pathology. Radiology 151, 187190.
  • Sakamoto H, Ogawa Y & Yoshida H. (2008) Relationship between testicular volume and testicular function: comparison of the Prader orchidometric and ultrasonographic measurements in patients with infertility. Asian J Androl 10, 319324.
  • Sina D, Schuhmann R, Abraham R, Taubert HD & Dericks-Tan JS. (1975) Increased serum FSH levels correlated with low and high sperm counts in male infertile patients. Andrologia 7, 3137.
  • Tüttelmann F, Werny F, Cooper TG, Kliesch S, Simoni M & Nieschlag E. (2011) Clinical experience with azoospermia: aetiology and chances for spermatozoa detection upon biopsy. Int J Androl 34, 291298.
  • Uhler ML, Zinaman MJ, Brown CC & Clegg ED. (2003) Relationship between sperm characteristics and hormonal parameters in normal couples. Fertil Steril 79(Suppl. 3), 15351542.
  • Van Peperstraten A, Proctor ML, Johnson NP & Philipson G. (2008) Techniques for surgical retrieval of sperm prior to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for azoospermia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 16, CD002807.
  • World Health Organization. (2010) WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, 5th edn. WHO Press, Geneva.
  • Yeung CH, Cooper TG, Aberpenning F, Schulze H & Nieschlag E. (1993) Changes in movement characteristics of human spermatozoa along the length of the epididymis. Biol Reprod 49, 274280.