• Adams JB. (1985) Control of secretion and the function of c19-delta 5-steroids of the human adrenal gland. Mol Cell Endocrinol 41, 117.
  • Arai S, Miyashiro Y, Shibata Y, Kashiwagi B, Tomaru Y, Kobayashi M, Watanabe Y, Honma S & Suzuki K. (2010) New quantification method for estradiol in the prostatic tissues of benign prostatic hyperplasia using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Steroids 75, 1319.
  • Arai S, Miyashiro Y, Shibata Y, Tomaru Y, Kobayashi M, Honma S & Suzuki K. (2011) Effect of castration monotherapy on the levels of adrenal androgens in cancerous prostatic tissues. Steroids 76, 301308.
  • Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Matsumoto AM, Snyder PJ, Swerdloff RS & Montori VM. (2010) Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 25362559.
  • Bydder SA, Joseph DJ, Weinstein S & Stuckey BGA. (2007) Prostate cancer following testosterone replacement in klinefelter syndrome. ANZ J Surg 77, 9394.
  • Chang KH, Li R, Papari-Zareei M, Watumull L, Zhao YD, Auchus RJ & Sharifi N. (2011) Dihydrotestosterone synthesis bypasses testosterone to drive castration-resistant prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108, 1372813733.
  • Culig Z, Hobisch A, Hittmair A, Peterziel H, Cato AC, Bartsch G & Klocker H. (1998) Expression, structure, and function of androgen receptor in advanced prostatic carcinoma. Prostate 35, 6370.
  • El-Alfy M, Luu-The V, Huang XF, Berger L, Labrie F & Pelletier G. (1999) Localization of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and androgen receptor in the human prostate by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Endocrinology 140, 14811491.
  • Hsing AW, Stanczyk FZ, Belanger A, Schroeder P, Chang L, Falk RT & Fears TR. (2007) Reproducibility of serum sex steroid assays in men by ria and mass spectrometry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 10041008.
  • Huggins C & Hodges CV. (1941) Studies on prostatic cancer: i. The effect of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res 1, 293297.
  • Hwang JJ, Dharmawardana PG, Uchio EM, Wynberg J & Phillips JL. (2003) Prostate cancer in klinefelter syndrome during hormonal replacement therapy. Urology 62, 941.
  • Jin Y & Penning TM. (2001) Steroid 5alpha-reductases and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: key enzymes in androgen metabolism. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15, 7994.
  • Koike H, Morikawa Y, Sekine Y, Matsui H, Shibata Y & Suzuki K. (2011) Survivin is associated with cell proliferation and has a role in 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 induced cell growth inhibition in prostate cancer. J Urol 185, 14971503.
  • Locke J, Guns E, Lubik A, Adomat H, Hendy S, Wood C, Ettinger S, Gleave M & Nelson C. (2008) Androgen levels increase by intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis during progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 68, 64076415.
  • Mohler JL, Gregory CW, Ford OH 3rd, Kim D, Weaver CM, Petrusz P, Wilson EM & French FS. (2004) The androgen axis in recurrent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 440448.
  • Montgomery RB, Mostaghel EA, Vessella R, Hess DL, Kalhorn TF, Higano CS, True LD & Nelson PS. (2008) Maintenance of intratumoral androgens in metastatic prostate cancer: a mechanism for castration-resistant tumor growth. Cancer Res 68, 44474454.
  • Mostaghel E, Nelson PS, Nelson C & Montgomery RB. (2010) Intraprostatic steroidogenic enzymes – letter. Cancer Res 70, 82478249; author reply 8249-8250.
  • Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, Nakabayashi M, Endoh M, Sakamoto K, Mikami Y et al. (2005) In situ androgen producing enzymes in human prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer 12, 101107.
  • Nakamura Y, Suzuki T, Fukuda T, Ito A, Endo M, Moriya T, Arai Y & Sasano H. (2006) Steroid sulfatase and estrogen sulfotransferase in human prostate cancer. Prostate 66, 10051012.
  • Nakamura Y, Hornsby PJ, Casson P, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Xing Y, Kennedy MR, Sasano H & Rainey WE. (2009) Type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (akr1c3) contributes to testosterone production in the adrenal reticularis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 21922198.
  • Page ST, Lin DW, Mostaghel EA, Hess DL, True LD, Amory JK, Nelson PS, Matsumoto AM & Bremner WJ. (2006) Persistent intraprostatic androgen concentrations after medical castration in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 38503856.
  • Rhoden EL & Morgentaler A. (2004) Risks of testosterone-replacement therapy and recommendations for monitoring. N Engl J Med 350, 482492.
  • Siegel R, Naishadham D & Jemal A. (2012) Cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 62, 1029.
  • Stanbrough M, Bubley GJ, Ross K, Golub TR, Rubin MA, Penning TM, Febbo PG & Balk SP. (2006) Increased expression of genes converting adrenal androgens to testosterone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Res 66, 28152825.
  • Titus MA, Gregory CW, Ford OH, Schell MJ, Maygarden SJ & Mohler JL. (2005a) Steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes i and ii in recurrent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11, 43654371.
  • Titus MA, Schell MJ, Lih FB, Tomer KB & Mohler JL. (2005b) Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone tissue levels in recurrent prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11, 46534657.