• hypogonadism;
  • sex hormones;
  • testosterone;
  • treatment


The decline in testosterone levels found in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is associated with a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD). To study the safety profile and efficacy of testosterone treatment on BMD in patients with TDS. In this 2-year prospective open-label study, patients were administered 50 mg of testosterone gel daily (adjustable after 3 months up to 75–100 mg or down to 25 mg) for 12 months, followed by treatment with 1000 mg of testosterone undecanoate every 2–3 months from months 12–24. Outcome measures were as follows: (i) Changes in clinical chemistry safety parameters and total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and calculated free testosterone (cFT) levels; (ii) Changes in Aging Males′ Symptoms Scale (AMS) and International Prostate Symptom Score scores; and (iii) Changes in lumbar spine and hip BMD. A total of 50 men aged 50–65 years with TDS (AMS >26 and cFT <0.250 nmol/mL) took part in the study. There was no significant impact of testosterone on safety. Prostate-specific antigen and haematopoietic parameters increased significantly, although the changes were not clinically significant. Total and cFT increased significantly after 3 months (p < 0.001) and there were significant improvements after 3 months in AMS scores (p < 0.001). BMD improved significantly in L2–L4 (2.90 and 4.5%), total femur (0.74 and 3%) and trochanter (1.09 and 3.2%) at 12 and 24 months respectively. Testosterone treatment in men with TDS has a good safety profile, leads to significant improvement in lumbar spine and hip BMD, and improves symptoms, as assessed by the AMS questionnaire.