References Cited

  • Bernstein, T. 1977 Up to the Mountains and Down to the Village. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Mao Zedong 1968 Rustication Directive. Renmin Ribao (People's Daily). December 22, 1968. (translation in: Twelve Million School Graduates Settled in the Countryside. Peking Review 2:1113, (1976).
  • Mao Zedong 1965 The Orientation of the Youth Movement. In Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung. Vol. II:246. Peking: Foreign Language Press. (first published in Chinese on May 4, 1939.).
  • Scudder, T. and Colson, E. 1982 From Welfare to Development: A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of Dislocated People. In Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: The Problems and Responses of Dislocated People. A. Hansen and A. Oliver-Smith, eds. Pp. 267287. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.
  • Xiao Bing 1976 China's Countryside: A Vast School for Her Youth. Beijing: Foreign Language Press.