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  • Adepoju, A. 1982 The Dimensions of the Refugee Problem in Africa,” African Affairs, 81(2): 2135.
  • Baker, R. 1983 The Psychological Problems of Refugees. London: The British Refugee Council.
  • Balan, J., ed. 1981 Why People Move: Comparative Perspectives on the Dynamics of Internal Migration. France: The UNESCO Press.
  • Boesch, E. E. and A.M.F. Goldschmidt, eds. 1983 Refugees and Development. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • Boothby, N. 1992 Displaced Children: Psychological Theory and Practice from the Field,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 5(2): 106123. The article reviews some of the literature dealing with psychological support to children displaced by war and political conflict. The author, based on his experience in Southeast, central and Southern Asia, then discusses children's reactions to stressful experience and some wider sociopolitical and cultural factors that affect the implementation of primary mental health programs.
  • Butcher, D.A.P. 1971 (73) An Operational Manual for Resettlement: A Systematic Approach to the Problems Created by Man-Made Lakes, with Special Relevance for West Africa. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.
  • Callaway, H. 1987 Women Refugees: Specific Requirements and Untapped Resources,” Third World Affairs, 320325. The author shows that most researchers and refugee aid policies are male-oriented and have generally ignored women. She calls for more research about refugee women during different stages of the displacement process and argues that aid agencies should take women's roles and needs into consideration.
  • Callaway, T. R. Some Thoughts on Organization for Village Development and Reconstruction Following Earthquake Damage. Washington, D.C.: Division of International Affairs, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
  • Cernea, M. M. 1988 Involuntary Resettlement in Development Projects: Policy Guidelines in World Bank Financed Projects. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
  • Cernea, M. M. and S. E. Guggenheim 1993 Anthropological Approaches to Resettlement: Policy, Practice, and Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Chambers, R. 1969 Settlement Schemes in Tropical Africa: A Study of Organization and Development. New York: Praeger.
  • Cirtautas, C. K. 1957 The Refugee: A Psychological Study. Boston: Meador.
  • Clay, J. W. 1985 Ethnicity: A Powerful Factor in Refugee Flows.” In World Refugee Survey: 1984 in Review. New York: U.S. Committee for Refugees.
  • Clifford, J. J. 1970 Readings in the Sociology of Migration. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Focuses on the U.S. and northwest Europe, with one article each on Japan and San Salvador, as well as a theoretical introduction. Discusses rural-urban internal migration as resulting from industrialization, with a focus on “differential migration” and selectivity due to age, sex, and class.
  • Cohen, J. D. 1981 Psychological Adaptation and Dysfunction Among Refugees,” International Migration Review, 15(1): 255275.
  • David, H. P. 1969 Involuntary International Migration: Adaptation of Refugees,” International Migration Review, 7(3/4): 67105.
  • Davis, I. 1981 Disasters and the Small Dwelling. Oxford. Pergamon. This collection of articles discusses the cultural, social and political context of disaster assistance. Different aspects of housing construction and relief after disaster are presented as well as several case studies from different parts of the world.
  • Davis, I. 1978 Disasters and Settlements—Towards an Understanding of the Key Issues,” Disasters, 2(2–3): 105117. The article provides a framework for the study of resettlement after disasters and aims to identify the key issues involved. The author points out some of the gaps in our knowledge of this process and directions for future research.
  • Davis, I. 1978 Shelter after Disaster. Oxford: Oxford Polytechnic Press.
  • Dick, B. and S. Simmonds 1983 Refugee Health Care: Similar but Different?,” Disasters, 7:291303.
  • Ebrahim, M. H. 1984 Nomadism, Settlement and Development,” Habitat-International, 8(1): 125141. Many settlement projects were established to sedentarize nomads in Asia and Africa in the light of environmental conditions such as drought, as well as expectations of economic advantages and greater security. Yet most of these projects have failed to achieve their aims. The author shows that nomadism is an historical response to an arid environment. He describes the difference between forced and spontaneous settlements and discusses the problems associated with each of these processes.
  • Eidem, J. 1973 Forced Resettlement: Selected Components of the Migratory Process.” In Man-Made Lakes: Their Problems and Environmental Effects. Ed. W. C. Ackermann et al.. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
  • European Consultation on Refugees and Exiles 1991 Fair and Efficient Procedures for Determining Refugee Status: A Proposal,” International Journal of Refugee Law, 3(1): 111119.
  • Ferris, E., ed. 1985 Refugees and World Politics. New York: Praeger Publishers. A collection of articles that present a political analysis of the refugee situation. The first article is an overview of refugees and world politics. The second article (by A. Zolberg) discusses the formation of new states as a refugee-generating process. The next two articles discuss international responses to refugee situations by examining the activities of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and private voluntary organizations. The rest of the book presents cases from Canada, the USA, Nicaragua, Honduras, Mexico, and Palestine.
  • Forbes, S. 1985 Residency Patterns and Secondary Migration of Refugees,” Migration News, 34(1): 318.
  • Gordenker, L. 1987 Refugees in International Politics. London: Croom Helm.
  • Gordenker, L. 1983 Refugees in Developing Countries and Transitional Organization,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 467:6277.
  • Gordenker, L. 1982 Causes of Forced Migration. New York: The Columbia University Seminar on Human Rights.
  • Haas, J. E. et al. 1977 Reconstruction Following Disaster. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. This book discusses how some cities have been reconstructed after disasters in different areas of the world. It seeks to examine the macro and micro mechanisms that interact to shape the reconstructed society. It provides several recommendations on ways to improve the reconstruction process.
  • Hamilton, S. 1984 Participation and Ownership: Involving Resettled People in the Project Implementation.” In Training Manual in Development Anthropology. Ed. W. L. Partridge. Washington, D.C.: American Anthropological Association.
  • Hanbury-Tenison, A. R. 1989 Refugees: Dynamics of Displacement,” The Geographical Journal, 155:250.
  • Hansen, A. and A. Oliver-Smith, eds. 1982 Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: The Problems and Responses of Dislocated Peoples. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. This is one of the major works addressing the issues and contexts of involuntary migration and resettlement with a focus on the responses of dislocated peoples, including stress, patterns of reactions and coping strategies. The editors try to present a general framework for analyzing displacement, with a special emphasis on the role of the state in resettlement. The book compares voluntary and involuntary migration. The latter is defined as “when there is a catastrophic change in people's environment and they have little or no choice but to relocate,” and includes natural disasters, sociopolitical upheaval, and planned change.
  • Hardoy, J. E. and D. Satterthwaite 1981 Shelter, Need and Response: Housing, Land and Settlement Policies in Seventeen Third World Nations. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. A useful summary of reports presented at a Habitat conference in 1976 by four research institutions for the four main regions of the Third World. The section about the Arab World was prepared by the Department of Architecture at the University of Khartoum.
  • Harrell-Bond, B. E. 1988 The Sociology of Involuntary Migration: An Introduction,” Current Sociology, 36(2): 16. Siscussion of refugee problems and involuntary migration as a third-world phenomenon. The author points to the role of international agencies in refugee relief and their impact on the countries in which they operate. She focuses on research, agencies, and journals dealing with refugees.
  • Harrell-Bond, B. E. 1987 Refugee Issues,” Third World Affairs, 311319.
  • Harrell-Bond, B. E. 1986 Imposing Aid: Emergency Assistance to Refugees. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Discussion of refugee problems and involuntry migration in general. It considers involuntary migration as a third-world phenomenon. The author points to the role of international agencies in refugee relief and how it affects the refugees' countries.
  • Harrell-Bond, B. E. and E. Voutira 1992 Anthropology and the Study of Refugees,” Anthropology Today, 8(4): 610. The authors state that despite the fact that displacement is a common phenomenon throughout the world, little academic attention has been devoted to studying refugees, uprooting, and related topics. They attribute this neglect to theoretical bias in anthropology that tend to downplay violence and cruelty. The authors argue that anthropologists should act as cultural brokers who present refugee perspectives and provide important information to policymakers about their social, cultural, and psychological adaptation and economic integration. They conclude that the study of refugees is an important aspect of studying social change and that suffering should be understood not as a mere deviation of cultural norms but as a feature common to all societies.
  • Holborn, L. W. 1975 Refugees: A Problem of our Time—The World of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1951–1972, Vols. I & II. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Ltd. Good summary of the arguments presented for establishing the UNHCR and the tasks that comprise its mandate.
  • Holt, J. 1981 Camps as Communities,” Disasters, 5(3): 176179. The author discusses the factors that work against and towards forming communities in refugee camps. He analyzes leadership, residence patterns, education, and economic activities, and how they developed in the new camps.
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  • Huyck, C. C. and L. F. Bouvier 1983 “The Demography of Refugees,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 467:3961. A refugee is defined as a person fleeing any physical danger, persecution, economic difficulty, or other “push factors” but who plans to return to his/her original place. The authors describe the numbers and background of major refugee movements (including those in the Middle East, a region which is both a receiver and sender of refugees). They refer to the lack of accurate information and the difficulty in predicting future trends.
  • ICIHI (Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues) 1968 Refugees: Dynamics of Displacement. A Report for the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues. London: Zed Books Ltd. Studies of the complex forces (political upheaval, persecution, and natural disasters such as famine and drought) that lead to mass displacement as a global phenomenon. The displacement process may present new economic opportunities, but in most cases results in increased impoverishment of the displaced group. The first part of the book discusses the plight of refugees, defined as those who flee from persecution in their own country and seek protection elsewhere. The book examines important issues related to refugees such as freedom of movement and the right of government to move people. In addition, it presents possible mechanisms for predicting and preventing mass displacement.
  • Indra, D. 1987 Gender: A Key Dimension of the Refugee Experience,” Refugee, 6(3): 34.
  • Ingersoll, J. et al. 1976 Resettlement and Settlement: An Annotated Bibliography. Southeast Asia Development Advisory Group.
  • Karadawi, A. 1982 Definition of a Refugee: Changing Concepts.” Paper presented at Khartoum Refugee Seminar, Khartoum, September.
  • Keely, C. B. and P. J. Elwell 1981 Global Refugee Policy: The Case for a Development-Oriented Strategy. New York: The Population Council. This book suggests that refugees increase with nationalism and state-building.
  • Keller, S. L. 1975 Uprooting and Social Change: The Role of Refugees in Development. Delhi: Manohar Book Service. Based on a study of Punjabi Hindu and Sikh refugees in North India, this book examines refugee political culture as manifested in their perceptions, sentiments, and attitudes. The author's main conclusion is that the displacement process produced individuals with a favorable attitude towards change, a synergistic outlook, and a willingness to take risks. This gave refugees important and progressive roles in the economic development of the region.
  • Kismaric, C. 1989 Forced Out: The Agony of the Refugee in our Time. New York: Random House.
  • Kubat, D. and H.-J. Hoffman-Noworny 1981 Migration: Towards a New Paradigm,” International Social Science Journal, 33(2): 307329.
  • Kunz, E. F. 1973 Exile and Resettlement: Refugee Theory,” International Migration Review, 15(1–2): 4251. The article attempts to present a comprehensive analysis of refugee settlements by discussing pre-flight and post-flight conditions. It presents some hypotheses about the nature of anticipatory, acute, and vintage refugees.
  • Kunz, E. F. 1973 The Refugee in Flight: Kinetic Models and Forms of Displacement,” International Migration Review, 7(2): 125147. The article reviews theories and models that point to the need for more comprehensive theories that would encompass different types of refugee movements. A kinetic model is used to differentiate between voluntary and refugee movements. The author reexamines Petersen's categories of flight and displacement to show that refugee movements take place not as one step linking place of origin with point of destination, but actually as a multi-step process.
  • Lanphier, C. M. 1983 Refugee Resettlement: Models in Action,” International Migration Review, 17(1): 433.
  • Loescher, G. and L. Monahan, eds. 1989 Refugees and International Relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book investigates the general failure of attempts to resolve the refugee problem. The first part discusses the international framework; the second deals with the different dimensions of the refugee problem, and the third suggests solutions to this problem.
  • Malkki, L. 1992 National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity Among Scholars and Refugees,” Cultural Anthropology, 7(1): 2444. The author suggests that studying refugees is an important means of understanding the relationship between place, space, and identity. She uses narratives constructed by two Hutu refugee groups in Tanzania, one living in a refugee camp and the other not, to challenge concepts that many scholars take for granted, such as rootedness in a place. She sees that there is ‘truly an intellectual need for a new 'sociology of displacement’, a new ‘nomadology’” (37–38).
  • Morrison, P. A. 1980 Population Movements: Their Forms and Functions in Urbanization and Development. Liege: Ordina Editions.
  • Murphy, H.B.M., ed. 1955 Flight and Resettlement. Lucerne, Switzerland: Unesco Publications and C.J. Bucher. This book contains interesting accounts of the effects on the individual of displacement due to war (WWII) and the experience of deportation, concentration camps, refugee camps, and rehabilitation programs. Emphasis is on the psychological impact of the postdisplacement period. Resettlement here is considered as the state when the person no longer feels like a refugee.
  • Nann, R. C., ed. 1982 Uprooting and Surviving: Adaptation and Resettlement of Migrant Females and Children. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing House. A collection of articles examining how families and children, uprooted by choice or force, are resettled and adapt to their new environment, this book presents cases of Southeast Asian refugees in the U.S. and immigrants in North America, Europe, and Asia. The first chapter presents an overview of uprooting and survival strategies, and discusses important questions, such as resettlement as a social issue and the ethnic community as a support system.
  • Nanuck, F. 1988 Primary Health Care and Urban Refugees - A Neglected Subject. Evaluation Planning Centre, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
  • Neuwirth, G. 1988 Refugee Resettlement,” Current Sociology, 36(2): 2741. A review of resettlement issues and problems facing refugees during the first 3–4 years of residence. The author emphasizes that refugee resettlement is a new field of study that should not be confused with immigration studies. New theories need to be formulated to take into account experiences of refugees, to focus on differences between voluntary and involuntary migration, and to distinguish immigrants from refugees. The article points to the lack of accurate and complete statistics and stresses the need to investigate the factors behind resettling certain refugee groups in specific countries and the different selection criteria used by various countries. The need for an information exchange network concerned with data on refugees and resettlement is emphasized.
  • Newland, K. 1981 Refugees: The New International Politics of Displacement. Washington D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
  • Olson, M. E. 1979 Refugees as a Special Case of Population Redistribution.” In Population Redistribution: Patterns, Policies and Prospects. Ed. L. Gosling et al.. New York: United Nations Fund for Population Activities.
  • Paringaux, R.-P. 1988 The Impact of Urban Refugees,” Refugees, 3031.
  • Pellizzi, F. 1988 To Seek Refuge: Nation and Ethnicity in Exile.” In Ethnicities and Nations. Ed. R. Guidieri et al.. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Rapoport, A. 1978 Nomadism as a Man-Environment System,” Environment and Behavior, 10(2): 215246. Discussing the need to take cultural specificity into consideration when dealing with environmental change, the author emphasizes that forced sedentarization programs which fail to consider specific features of nomadism will be destructive to the group's culture, beliefs, and identity.
  • Ravenstein, E. 1885 (89) “The Laws of Migration,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 48(52): 167235 (241–305). Th is classic article is the basis of much of migration theory.
  • Richard, A. H. 1988 Sociological Theories of International Migration: The Case of Refugees,” Current Sociology, 36(2): 726. A survey of sociological theories dealing with refugees, including macrotheories (global systems and political economy) and microtheories. Concerned with the difference between “structuration and voluntaristic action,” the author points to the need for a new paradigm that focuses on a multivariate approach in studying involuntary migration.
  • Rogge, J., ed. 1989 Causes and Consequences of Refugee Migrations in the Third World. Canada: Manitoba University Press.
  • Rose, P. I. 1985 Towards a Sociology of Exile: A Report on an Academic Symposium,” International Migration Review, 19(4): 768773. The reported symposium discussed problems of research and teaching on the causes and results of forced migration. It also explored the current condition of refugees in the West (especially the U.S.) and in the developing countries.
  • Rossi, P. H. 1959 Why Families Move. Glencoe: The Free Press.
  • Salzman, P. C., ed. 1980 When Nomads Settle: Processes of Sedentarization as Adaptation and Response. New York: Praeger Publishers. This collection of articles shows that sedentarization is in many cases a natural or voluntary process. Emphasizing that sedentarization in most cases is a gradual process of change and can be one stage in a recurring oscillation, the book points out that noncoerced settlement does not mean that nomads were not under pressure to settle and emphasizes that forcing nomads to settle as a way of civilizing them can have detrimental consequences society as a whole as well as for the settled group.
  • Schechtman, J. B. 1963 The Refugee in the World: Displacement and Integration. New York: A.S. Barnes and Co. This is a study of the origin, development, and solution of the refugee problem in Europe, Asia, and Africa. The author defines a refugee as anyone who crosses a frontier and seeks protection in a new place. A chapter on Palestinian refugees and another on the integration of refugees in Israel are included.
  • Scudder, T. 1973 Summary: Resettlement.” In Man-Made Lakes: Their Problems and Environmental Effects. Ed. W. C. Ackermann et al. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union. The editor points to a general lack of studyies about resettlement due to dam construction. He refers to several areas that should be investigated, including the timing and financing of resettlement, resettlement as a complex of organizations and interest groups with various views of a desirable lifestyle, the planning and execution of new systems of land use, occupations for the resettled group, and relations with the host society.
  • Shami, S. 1993 The Social Implications of Population Displacement and Resettlement: An Overview with a Focus on the Arab Middle East,” International Migration Review, 27(1). Spring.
  • Sikka, D. R. 1973 Guidelines for Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Uprooted Agricultural Population in River Valley Projects.” In Man-Made Lakes; Their Problems and Environmental Effects. Ed. W. C. Ackermann et al.. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.
  • Simmonds, S. 1984 Refugees, Health and Development,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 78:726733.
  • Simmonds, S. et al. 1983 Refugee Community Health Care. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Stein, B. 1981 The Refugee Experience: Defining the Parameters of a Field of Study,” International Migration Review, 15(1–2): 320333. The article presents a review of some of the literature dealing with various stages of the refugee experience. It points to the need for more research to develop concepts, definitions, and issues related to refugees, including refugee women, children, and elderly.
  • Sutter, J., ed. 1962 Human Displacements. Monte Carlo: Hachette.
  • Thomas, J. F. 1981 Refugees: A New Approach (A Documentary Note),” International Migration Review, 15(1–2): 2025. The article proposes the establishment of a new financial agency to solve the problems of refugees. It calls for an evaluation of refugee problems during the last two decades to learn about the obstacles that face refugee relief efforts. In addition, the author calls for a revision of some international agencies for refugee aid, such as UNHCR, and emphasizes the need for a new agency to coordinate between the different agencies.
  • Timberlake, L. 1985 Conflict, Refugees and the Environment.” In Africa in Crisis. London: International Institute for Environmental Development.
  • UNHCR/IRIRC 1985 International Bibliography of Refugee Literature. Geneva: IRIRC.
  • Vernant, J. 1953 The Refugee in the Post-War World. London: Allen & Unwin.
  • White, P. and R. Woods 1980 The Geographical Impact of Migration. London: Longman. Discusses the impact of migration on population distribution and human organization. The first part of the book explores the nature and causes of migration and its effects on the socioeconomic and political structure of both the sending and the receiving societies. The second part provides various case studies from Africa, Latin America, Britain, and France.
  • World Bank 1980 Social Issues Associated with Involuntary Settlement in Bank Financial Projects,” Operational Manual Statements (OMS), 2(33): 17.
  • WUS (World University Service) 1977 Education for Refugees. London: World University Service.
  • Yeld, R. 1968 Resettlement of Refugees.” In Land Settlement and Rural Development in East Africa. Ed. R. E. Apthorpe. Kampala: Nkanga Editions.
  • Zetter, R. 1991 Labelling Refugees: Forming and Transforming a Bureaucratic Identity,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 4(1): 3961.
  • Zetter, R. 1985 Refugees—Access and Labelling,” Development and Change, 16(3): 429450. The article argues that labelling is connected with the distribution of resources through refugee relief efforts. In the first part of article, the author summarizes the bureaucratic procedures that structured access to housing programs for refugees in North Cyprus. Then he discusses labelling to show how it may produce contradictory results like dependency and independence, assimilation and refugee consciousness.
  • Zolberg, A. 1983 The Formation of New States as a Refugee-Generating Process,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 467:2438.The article examines conditions under which the state may select certain groups (ethnic, social, religious, racial, national) to persecute and expel directly or indirectly. It shows that this process arises as a byproduct of nation-building. The author argues that this process started in Europe a half millennium ago and is still taking place in many Third World countries.
  • Zolberg, A. et al. 1989 Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Zolberg, A. et al. 1986 International Factors in the Formation of Refugee Movements,” International Migration Review, 20(2): 151169. The paper shows that international factors interfere directly or indirectly in creating refugee movements in different parts of the world. It draws from refugee cases in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to show that social conflicts are not internal events, but transnational and, with time, become more and more internationalized. The solution for refugee problems should operate at the international level, necessitating modification of foreign policy of some superpowers (particularly the U.S.) in order to reduce their intervention in other countries' affairs.
  • Zwingman, C. and M. Pfister-Ammende 1973 Uprooting and After. New York: Springer-Verlag. The book focuses on the Northern hemisphere, specifically on concentration camp victims and their individual responses to their experiences. It questions the distinction between voluntary and involuntary migration.
  • B — Resettlement Policy and History in the Middle East.
  • Abdalla, I. H. 1970 The Choice of Khashm el Girba Area for the Resettlement of the Halfawis,” Sudan Notes and. Records, 51:5674.
  • Abdalla, I. H. 1967 Historical Studies on the Transfer and Resettlement of the Halfawi Population at Khashm el Girba.M.A. thesis presented to the Sudan Research Unit, University of Khartoum.
  • Abou-Zeid, A. H. 1959 The Sedentarization of Nomads in the Western Desert of Egypt,” International Social Science Journal, 11 (4):550558.
  • Abu Jaber, K. S. and F. Gharaibeh 1981 Bedouin Settlement: Organizational, Legal, and Administrative Structure in Jordan.” In The Future of Pastoral Peoples. Ed. J. G. Galaty et al. Ottawa: International Development Research Center. The editors discuss different means used to “lure” Bedouin to settlement, including working in the army, urbanization, education, and government policies in social services. All these have accelerated the process of Bedouin settlement.
  • Akkad, H. A. 1967 The Nomad Problem and the Implementation of a Nomadic Settlement Scheme in Saudi Arabia.” In Land Policy in the Near East. Ed. M. R. El-Ghonemye Rome: FAO.
  • Al-Qutub, I. 1989 The Challenge for Urban Development Policies: The Case of Refugee Camp Cities in the Middle East,” Journal of Arab Affairs, 8(2): 207220.
  • Al-Qutub, I. 1989 Refugee Camp Cities in the Middle East: A Challenge for Urban Development Policies,” International Sociology, 4(1): 91108. An analysis of refugee camps and their relationship with urban centers, refugee camps are presented as transitory communities until more permanent patterns are established. These communities show a strong sense of belonging and solidarity despite pressures from many sides and, in the case of camps in Lebanon, continuous attacks by the Israelis.
  • Amiran, D. H. and Y. Ben-Arieh 1983 Sedentarization of Bedouins in Israel,” Israel Exploration Journal, 13(3): 161181.
  • Awad, M. 1959 Settlement of Nomads and Semi-Nomadic Tribal Groups in the Middle East,” International Labour Review, 79(1): 2556. Discussion of different methods used to sedentarize nomads in the Middle East and the problems that face them. The author emphasizes the importance of education in achieving full social integration after resettlement. He concludes that tribal spirit should not be destroyed but rather encouraged to merge gradually with national spirit.
  • Brokensha, D. and T. Scudder 1968 Resettlement.” In Dams in Africa. Eds., N. Rubin and M. H. Warren. London: Frank Cass and Co. The article is based on data from Egypt, Sudan and other African countries where dam construction led to several resettlement projects. The editors show that resettlement projects provide the community with development opportunities, but emphasize the importance of taking the resettled group's needs into consideration while planning and implementing such projects.
  • Bujra, A. S. 1973 The Social Implications of Development Policies: A Case Study from Egypt.” In The Desert and The Sown. Ed. C. Nelson. Berkeley: University of California Press. The article discusses the cooperative movement as part of the Egyptian government's program to sedentarize the Bedouins, and its effects on Bedouin society. The popularizing of cooperatives among the Bedouins led to unexpected results. For example, it enabled the Bedouins to participate in smuggling, increasing the differentiation between noble and inferior tribes, strengthening lineage, and therefore increasing the power of the traditional leadership.
  • Dafalla, H. 1975 The Nubian Exodus. London: C. Hurst and the Scandinavian Institute of African Studies. This detailed description of the administrative procedures and problems that arose along with the displacement of the Nubians of Wadi Haifa in Sudan is based on the author's diary and official documents. The first part describes the area and socioeconomic background of the population. The second part deals with the process of displacement and resettlement and the problems with which the author, as a government employee, had to deal. Finally the post-emigration era and its problems are discussed.
  • Digard, J.-P. 1979 Nomads and the Central State in Iran: Some Lessons from a Long History of ‘Ruled Hostility’,” Peuples Mediterranees, 7:3753.Part of the author's discussion shows how sedentarization was used to destroy nomadic life and facilitate the penetration of capitalism.
  • El-Hamamsy, L. and J. Garrison, eds. 1979 Human Settlements on New Lands: Their Design and Development. Cairo: The American University in Cairo. The book comprises the proceedings of a workshop on the planning and development of rural settlements, held in Alexandria in September, 1971. Papers were presented by social scientists and administrators. The former discussed social aspects that should be considered while planning and implementing resettlement projects, such as the need for dynamic planning to keep a balance between physical, economic, and social development of the settled group, and the need for dialogue between project administrators and settlers. Administrators discussed planning and implementation of settlement projects in Arab countries like Egypt, Sudan, and Syria.
  • El-Solh, C. F. 1984 Egyptian Migrant Peasants in Iraq. A Case-Study of the Settlement Community in Khalsa. Ph.D dissertation presented to the Department of Sociology, the University of London.
  • El-Wifati, B. 1978 Some Socio-Economic Considerations in the Agricultural Settlement of Bedouins: An Example from Libya,” Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, 1:6987.The article discusses some of the problems that a Bedouin dry farming settlement faced in Libya. Statistical analysis is provided to show how variation in the farmers' income, social and economic conditions, family structure, and the settlers' management abilities relate to their attitudes toward modernity.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1980 Nubian Resettlement and Nomadic Sedentarization in Khashm el-Girba Scheme, Eastern Sudan.” In When Nomads Settle: Processes of Sedentarization as Adaptation and Response. Ed. P. C. Salzman. New York: Praeger Publishers.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1979 “Community Health Aspects of Nubian Resettlement in Egypt.” In From Tzintzuntzon to the “Image of Limited Good”: Essays in the Honor of George M. Foster. Ed. M. Clark et al.. Berkeley: Kroeber Anthropological Society.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1974 The New Nubian Settlement in Egypt. Miami: Field Research Projects. A descriptive report that documents Nubian resettlement in Kom Ombo in Upper Egypt (New Nubia). The report is based upon a survey conducted during 1971 describing some of the changes in socioeconomic structure that resulted from the resettlement process. The report concludes that the government found it difficult to respond to the new housing and land-use demands, since social planning had been appended to physical planning.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1973 Nubian Resettlement in the Sudan,” Ekistics, 36(212): 4249.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1972 Nubian Resettlement in the Sudan. Miami: Field Research Projects. This descriptive report documents the resettlement of Nubians at Khashm el-Girba in the Sudan after construction of the Aswan High Dam. The report describes policy and administrative procedures and discusses some of the problems faced in the execution of resettlement projects.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1971 The Evaluative Research of the Egyptian Scheme of Nubian Resettlement. Report presented to the Social Research Center, the American University in Cairo.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1968 The Resettlement of Egyptian Nubians: A Case Study in Development Change. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Falah, G. 1985 How Israel Controls the Bedouin in Israel,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 54(2):3551. Discusses the influence of the creation of Israel on the distribution of Bedouins and their sedentarization in Negev and Galilee. The author concludes that Israel's attempts to settle the Bedouins in order to Westernize and civilize them resulted in the destruction of Bedouin heritage and social structure.
  • Falah, G. 1983 The Role of the British Administration in the Sedentarization of the Bedouin Tribes in Northern Palestine, 1918–1948. Durham: Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, Durham University. The book analyzes British administration policy and the extensive sedentarization of the Bedouins of Northern Palestine. This policy aimed to control the movements and economic activities of the Bedouins through settling them. The author shows that the lack of a coherent British policy to deal with Bedouin sedentarization led to conflict between what the British wanted and what the Bedouins needed. The author concludes that although sedentarization was interrupted by the 1948 war, the British did “institute in the Bedouin mind the concept of sedentary life.”.
  • Falah, G. 1982 The Processes and Patterns of Sedentarization of the Galilee Bedouin, 1880–1982. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the Department of Geography, University of Durham.
  • Fernea, R. A. 1966 Contemporary Egyptian Nubia. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, Inc. This book is a collection of symposium papers which document different aspects of Nubian life (before resettlement) such as the history of the area, linguistic characteristics, rituals, tribal structure, leadership, residence patterns and architecture, irrigation, and the economy. Discussion of the economy focuses mainly on labor and the occupational adjustments of the resettled population.
  • Fernea, R. A. 1966 Nubian Migration: A Cultural Phenomenon.” Paper presented to the 7th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow.
  • Fernea, R. A. 1962 The Use of Pilot Communities as an Approach to Nubian Resettlement.” Report presented to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Agencies Concerned with the Nubian Resettlement, Cairo.
  • Fernea, R. A. and G. Gerster 1973 Nubians in Egypt: Peaceful People; Ethnographic Essay. Austin: University of Texas Press. This ethnographic and photographic essay describes Nubian life in the past and present. Chapter Seven deals with emigration and the urban experience. Fernea discusses the historical roots of Nubian labor migration before resettlement. This migration helped to strengthen Nubian self-identification because it necessitated mutual cooperation and communal decisions.
  • Geiser, P. 1986 The Egyptian Nubian: A Study in Social Symbiosis. Cairo: American University in Cairo. The book examines the changes that occurred in Nubian culture and social structure during the group adaptation process after resettlement in Cairo. The author disagrees with the idea that rural transformation and urban resettlement weaken the traditional community. He starts his book with historical background about the Nubians, then discusses demographic, economic, educational, and religious aspects. In the third part of the book, population movements and migration are discussed. The last part of the book discusses the urban matrix and the urban Nubian family. The author shows that the history of labor migration is crucial to any study of Nubian resettlement.
  • Geiser, P. 1967 Some Differential Factors Affecting Population Movement: The Nubian Case,” Human Organization, 26(3): 164177. The article examines the historical background of selected aspects of the Nubian population movement at the time of the study. The author argues that Nubian migration patterns developed from complex historical, social, institutional, economic, and spatial factors. He argues that construction of the first dam at Aswan may have increased group migration, but cannot be considered a substantial factor in forming migration behavior.
  • George, A. R. 1972 Processes of Nomadic Sedentarization in the Middle East. M.A. thesis presented to the Department of Geography, Durham University.
  • Haghandoqa, M. K. 1985 The Circassians: Origin, History, Customs, Traditions, Immigration to Jordan. n.p.:n.p.
  • Horton, A. W. 1964 The Egyptian Nubians: Some Information on their Ethnography and Resettlement,” American University Field Staff Reports, Northeast African Series, 11(2).
  • Hoyle, S. 1977 The Khashm el Girba Agricultural Scheme: An Example of an Attempt to Settle Nomads.” In Land Use and Development. Ed. P. O'Keffe et al.. London: International African Institute.
  • Kennedy, J. G. 1977 Struggle for Change in a Nubian Community: An Individual in Society and History. Palo Alto: Mayfield Publishing Company. The book is based on a life history that shows the role of one leader in the social change at the community level resulting from displacement and resettlement as well as from socioeconomic changes in the wider society.
  • Kennedy, J. G. 1966 Occupational Adjustment in a Previously Resettled Nubian Village.” In Contemporary Egyptian Nubia. Ed. R. A. Fernea. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.
  • Khogali, M. 1981 Sedentarization of the Nomads: Sudan.” In The Future of Pastoral Peoples. Ed. J. G. Galaty et al.. Ottawa: International Development Research Center. The editor sees sedentarization as the first step towards the development of nomadic societies. He shows that spontaneous settlement is more successful than planned settlement. This is explained by the different perceptions of nomads and planners.
  • Lada, S. P. 1932 The Exchange of Minorities: Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey. New York: Macmillan.
  • Meir, A. 1984 Demographic Transition Among the Negev Bedouin in Israel and its Planning Implications,” Socio Economic Planning Sciences, 18(6): 399409. The author notes that demographic processes were neglected in sedentarization projects for the Bedouins of the Negev. The shift from nomadism to semiurbanization witnessed a decrease in fertility and mortality due to economic growth and social modernization. The author emphasizes the need to take into consideration these demographic processes, as well as the cultural specificity of the Bedouins, in planning for sedentarization.
  • Musham, H. V. 1959 Sedentarization of the Bedouin in Israel,” International Social Science Journal, 11(4): 539549.
  • Shamekh, A. A. 1977 Bedouin Settlements (Al-Qasim Region of North Central Saudi Arabia),” Ekistics: The Problems and Science of Human Settlements, 43:249259.
  • Shami, S. 1993 The Social Implications of Population Displacement and Resettlement: An Overview with a Focus on the Arab Middle East,” International Migration Review, 27(1). Spring.
  • Sutton, K. 1977 Population Resettlement: Traumatic Upheavals and the Algerian Experience,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 15(2): 279300. The article is a discussion of the population regroupment policy implemented by the French Colonial government in Algeria. It discusses some of the trends in the analysis of resettlement schemes. The author elaborates on some development projects in other countries to compare them with the Algerian experience. He ends his article with a call for minimizing the stress that resettled people suffer, and presents some sociological methods to measure the success of such efforts.
  • Tosco, F. 1976 Problems of Nomadism, Today, in Iran,” Quaderni di Sociologia, 25(1): 5682. The author emphasizes that forced sedentarization poses a serious danger to the socioeconomic structure in Iran. The nomads' economic activities are of importance at both the local and global level. Rather than forced sedentarization, the author suggests improving the nomadic stock through guided nomadism, and supporting change towards seminomadism that is integrated with industry and other economic activities.
  • UNESOB 1970 Nomadic Populations in Selected Countries in the Middle East and Related Issues of Sedentarization and Settlement. Beirut: UNESOB.
  • Waterbury, J. 1972 The Cairo Workshop on Land Reclamation and Resettlement in the Arab World,” Northeast Africa Series, 27(1). A summary and review of workshop on land reclamation and resettlement in the Arab world. The author distinguishes between three types of resettlement projects: voluntary, involuntary, and Bedouin sedentarization. He examines some of the projects in Arab countries and criticizes the workshop for neglecting the political dimensions of reclamation and resettlement processes.
  • C — Colonization, Conflict, and the Politics of Exile.
  • Abu-Lughod, J., ed. 1971 (87) The Transformation of Palestine. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. This collection of articles discusses the history of Palestine under the British Mandate and Israeli occupation. J. Abu-Lughod's article discusses demographic transformation, displacement of the Palestinians, and resettlement of the Jewish population since the beginning of this century.
  • Abu-Lughod, J. 1988 Palestinians: Exiles at Home and Abroad,” Current Sociology, 36(2): 6169. The principal focus of the author is estimating the number of Palestinians in exile (approximately 5.2 million). This includes Arabs in Israel, Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza, Palestinian refugees in Arab countries adjacent to Israel, and Palestinian refugees in the Gulf States and abroad. She points to the need for new concepts to describe the various situations of Palestinian refugees, such as “exile at home” and “inherited exile status.”.
  • Abu-Lughod, J. 1986 The Continuing Expulsions from Palestine: 1948–1985.” In Palestine: Continuing Dispossession. Ed. G. Perry. Belmont, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates, Inc.
  • Abu-Lughod, J. 1983 The Demographic Consequences of Occupation.” In Occupation: Israel over Palestine. Ed. N. Aruri. Belmont, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates Inc.
  • Amiran, D. H. and Y. Ben-Arieh 1983 Sedentarization of Bedouins in Israel,” Israel Exploration Journal, 13(3): 161181.
  • Bennoune, M. 1973 French Counter-Revolutionary Doctrine and the Algerian,” Peasantry Monthly Review, 25(7): 4360. Part of French policy to control the Algerians was resettlement. More than 2,350,000 peasants were resettled in new population centers to change their culture and loyalties. The high level of crowding and malnutrition led to the death of 290,000 Algerians. The projects and their devastating consequences fostered resistance which led to ending the French colonization of Algeria.
  • Bourdieu, P. 1958 (62) The Algerians. Boston: Beacon Press. A section in the book describes French resettlement policy in Algeria. In 1954, there were about 3 million displaced Algerians and one out of every three Algerians had to change his/her place of residence. The French policy was a manifestation of attempts to “discipline men” through the “discipline of space.”.
  • Brickner, B. 1958 As Driven Sands; The Arab Refugee, 1948–1968. New York: Commission on Social Action of Reform Judaism.
  • Brownlee, W. H. 1972 Rights and Wrongs in Palestine. Claremont, CA: Claremont Graduate School. The author deals with the history of the Palestinian cause, focusing on the legal aspects and ethics of expelling Palestinians in order to create Israel.
  • Childers, E. 1973 The Wordless Wish: From Citizens to Refugees. North Dartmouth, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates, Inc.
  • El-Masri, S. 1988 Displacements and Reconstruction: The Case of West Beirut-Lebanon,” Disasters, 13(4): 334344. One of the consequences of civil war in Lebanon was massive population displacement. The housing options in West Beirut were limited to buildings that were war-damaged, commercial, or squatter dwellings. Based on interviews and participant-observation, the author shows the need to extend support to the refugees and encourage their return to their original places of residence. The article concludes by emphasizing that housing is a priority in postwar reconstruction.
  • Falah, G. 1985 How Israel Controls the Bedouin in Israel,” Journal of Palestine Studies. 54(2): 3551. Discusses the influence of the creation of Israel on the distribution of the Bedouins and their sedentarization in Negev and Galilee. The author concludes that Israel's attempts to settle the Bedouins in order to Westernize and civilize them resulted in the destruction of Bedouin heritage and social structure.
  • Falah, G. 1983 The Role of the British Administration in the Sedentarization of the Bedouin Tribes in Northern Palestine, 1918–1948. Durham: Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, Durham University. Analyzes the policy of the British administration and the extensive sedentarization of the Bedouins of Northern Palestine. This policy aimed to control the movements and economic activities of the Bedouins through settlement. The author shows that lack of coherent British policy on Bedouin sedentarization led to conflict as to what the British wanted and what the Bedouins needed. The author concludes that although sedentarization was interrupted by the 1948 war, the British did “institute in the Bedouin mind the concept of sedentary life”.
  • Falah, G. 1982 The Processes and Patterns of Sedentarization of the Galilee Bedouin, 1880–1982. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the Department of Geography, University of Durham.
  • Flapan, S. 1987 The Palestinian Exodus of 1948,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 16:326.
  • Gilmour, D. 1986 The 1948 Arab Exodus,” Middle East International, 288:1517.
  • Glazer, S. 1980 The Palestinian Exodus in 1948”, Journal of Palestine Studies, 19:96118.
  • Kapeliouk, A. 1987 New Light on the Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Refugee Problem and Its Origins,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 16(3): 1624.
  • Khalidi, W. 1992 All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. This book documents in detail the destruction of 418 Palestinian villages by Israeli forces in 1948. It provides background information about the population, history, economy, and archaeological significance of the villages, describes the Israeli military operations that depopulated them, and names the Israeli settlements that have been built on village land. Detailed maps and photographs supplement the text, and an estimate of the number of villagers and Bedouin displaced in 1948 is given. The book is prefaced by a short analytical introduction and provides an index of place names and major persons mentioned.
  • Khalidi, W. 1963 What Made the Palestinians Leave. London: Arab Office of Information.
  • Lesch, A. 1977 Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories, 1967–1977,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 7(1): 2648.
  • Massarueh, A.S.Y. 1986 The Palestinians: Exiles in the Diaspora,” Middle East Insight, 4(6): 2630.
  • Morris, B. 1988 Haifa's Arabs: Displacement and Concentration, July 1948,” The Middle East Journal, 42(2): 241260.
  • Morris, B. 1986 The Harvest of 1948 and the Creation of the Palestinian Refugee Problem,” The Middle East Journal, 40(4): 671685. The author discusses how Israelis prevented Palestinians from harvesting their fields during 1948 and from cultivating the land. This led to alienation of the Palestinians and forced large numbers to move in order to secure their living. On the other hand, harvesting the fields by Jewish settlers during 1948 functioned to consolidate their power and attachment to the land.
  • Morris, B. 1986 Operation Dani and the Palestinian Exodus from Lydda and Ramle in 1948,” Middle Eastern Journal, 40(1): 82111.
  • Nazzal, N. 1978 The Palestinian Exodus from Galilee, 1948. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies.
  • Palumbo, M. 1987 The Palestinian Catastrophe: The 1948 Expulsion of a People from their Homeland. London: Faber and Faber.
  • Robnett, J. W. 1968 Conquest Through Immigration. Pasadena, CA: Institute for Special Research. The book discusses Zionist policy to occupy Palestine through Jewish illegal migration. The pressure that Zionists put on Palestinians to force them to leave their land is also discussed.
  • Smith, P. A. 1986 The Palestinian Diaspora, 1948–1985,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 59(3): 90108. The author emphasizes the need to study Palestinians who live outside Palestine as part of the Palestinian nation and not as “refugees.” She uses data about the size of the Palestinian population, socioeconomic structure, and location to present a class analysis. The analysis aims to show how national aspirations transcend or conflict with Palestinian solidarity with other groups in the host countries.
  • Sutton, K. 1977 Population Resettlement: Traumatic Upheavals and the Algerian Experience,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 15(2): 279300. The article is a discussion of the population regroupment policy implemented by the French Colonial government in Algeria, focusing on trends in analysis of resettlement schemes. The author descrobes and compares development projects in other countries with the Algerian experience. He ends his article with a call for minimizing the stress that resettled people suffer and presents sociological methods to measure the success of such efforts.
  • D — Relocation, Identity, and Imagined Communities.
  • Azarya, V. 1989 Armenians in Jerusalem: A Look Behind the Walls of the Saint James Monastery,” Israel Social Science Research, 6(1): 2439. The article discusses Armenian refugees who settled in Jerusalem after World War I. The monastery, already in Jerusalem when the refugees arrived, helped the community settle and provided them with many services. The article focuses on the relationship between the community and the monastery and how it changed over time.
  • Bar-Yosef, R. W. 1968 Deserialization and Resocialization: The Adjustment Process of Immigrants,” International Migration Review, 3(3): 2745. The article uses role and identity theories to show how Jewish immigrants lose their identities and social roles (desocialization) and gain new identities and roles (resocialization) when they settle in Palestine. The author emphasizes that disintegration and reintegration appear to be parallel processes.
  • Brand, L. A. 1988 Palestinians in Syria: The Politics of Integration,” Middle East Journal, 42:621637.
  • Brand, L. A. 1988 Palestinians in the Arab World: Institution Building and the Search for State. New York: Columbia University Press. Palestinian communities in Egypt, Kuwait, and Jordan are studied to show how Palestinians are trying to organize themselves. The author focuses on development of the General Union of Palestine Students, the General Union of Palestine Workers, the General Union of Palestinian Women, the General Union of Palestine Teachers, and the Palestine Red Crescent Society.
  • Bulcha, M. 1988 Flight and Integration: Causes of Mass Exodus from Ethiopia and Problems of Integration in the Sudan. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (SIAS).
  • Childers, E. 1973 The Wordless Wish: From Citizens to Refugees. North Dartmouth, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates.
  • Eisenstadt, S. N. 1969 The Integration of Immigrants from Different Countries of Origin in Israel. Jerusalem: Magnes Press.
  • Eisenstadt, S. N. 1954 The Absorption of Immigrants: A Comparative Study Based Mainly on the Jewish Community in Palestine and the State of Israel. Westport: Greenwood Press. The book attempts to provide a systematic sociological framework for analysis of migration and absorption of immigrants in modern societies.
  • El-Hamamsy, L. and H. Abu-Seoud 1962 The Initial Reactions of the First Group of Settlers to their New Environment. Cairo: The Social Research Center, American University in Cairo.
  • Fahim, H. M. 1983 Egyptian Nubians: Resettlement and Years of Coping. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. A longitudinal anthropological study that covers the period from 1963 to 1980, the book examines how people, culture, and environment interact in the adjustment process following resettlement. The author shows that while the state sees resettlement projects as a positive development, displaced groups see it as destructive to their heritage and social structure. He shows how the displaced group may adopt coping strategies in order to face the psychological disruption as well as to recover structural and cultural meanings that were lost in the displacement process. Resettlement projects are a multifaceted process that should be based on a proper timing sequence and take into consideration the various factors that affect the resettlement process.
  • Farah, T. E. 1977 Political Socialization of Palestinian Children in Kuwait,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 6(4): 90102. The article discusses how Palestinian children are taught the symbols, rituals, myths, and values of their identity. The author concludes that all Palestinians, despite differences due to gender and socioeconomic background, are still attached to the Palestinian cause and identify themselves as Palestinians.
  • Fernea, E. W. et al. 1991 Nubian Ethnographies. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc. The book is divided into three parts. The first by E. Fernea, documents her experience of the daily lives of Nubian women before their displacement due to construction of the Aswan High Dam. The second part by R. Fernea, presents historical background and describes certain aspects of Nubian life, such as marriage ceremonies and migration experience. The last part by R. Fernea and A. Rouchdy, is a discussion of Nubian ethnic identity and how it changed after resettlement. The book concludes that the new settlement provided new mutual interests that strengthened the Nubians' sense of belonging, such as ownership of land and houses in old Nubia and the fact that they are becoming an important economic and political group in the Aswan area.
  • Fernea, R. A. and J. G. Kennedy 1966 Initial Adaptations to Resettlement: A New Life for Egyptians,” Current Anthropology, 7(3): 349354. The article discusses Nubian displacement after construction of the Aswan High Dam. The authors show that displacement led to greater assimilation of the Nubians into the economic life of Egypt and at the same time, strengthened their Nubian identity and sense of belonging.
  • Goitom, E. 1987 Systems of Social Interaction of Refugee Adjustment Processes: The Case of Eritrean Refugees in Khartoum, Sudan.” In Refugees: A Third World Dilemma. Ed. J. Rogge. New Jersey. Rowman & Little Field.
  • Hirschon, R. 1989 Heirs of the Greek Catastrophe: The Social Life of Asia Minor Refugees in Piraeus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The war between Greece and Turkey ended in 1922 in what Greeks came to call the “Asia Minor” catastrophe. Over a million refugees entered Greece following the compulsory exchange of populations, increasing its population by a quarter and creating tremendous problems of resettlement. The author's long-term fieldwork in an urban quarter in Piraeus showed that after more than half a century, large sections of the urban refugee population still claimed a separate Asia Minor identity despite sharing with other Greeks a common culture, language, and religion.
  • Marx, E. 1992 Palestinian Refugee Camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,” Middle Eastern Studies, 28(2): 281294. The author's main point is that the Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank and Gaza Strip are fully integrated with the surrounding cities and towns; however, the inhabitants continue to consider themselves refugees. The author argues that Arab countries, UNRWA services, and Israeli policy provided many situations that produced and helped maintain the refugee identity as the dominant identity.
  • Marx, E. 1976 The Social Context of Violent Behaviour: A Social Anthropological Study in an Israeli Immigrant Town. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Based on a two-year anthropological study of the Moroccan immigrant community in the “New Towns” of Israel, the author examines incidents of wife and child beating, threats, assaults, vandalism, and attempted suicide. He shifts from his particular case to comment on the general social background of violence and presents a theory of violent behavior.
  • Mishal, S. 1978 West Bank/East Bank: The Palestinians in Jordan, 1949–1967. London and New Haven: Yale University Press. The author examines how Palestinian refugees managed to be identified as Palestinians, feel as Arabs, and live as Jordanians. The Palestinians as a political community managed to find strategies that secured the group's identity and existence without having to face the consequences of the contradictions that surrounded them.
  • Morris, B. 1985 The Initial Absorption of the Palestinian Refugees in the Arab Host Countries, 1948–1949.” Paper presented to the Conference on Twentieth Century Refugees, Oxford: Oxford University, Refugee Studies.
  • Peteet, J. 1987 Sociopolitical Integration and Conflict Resolution in the Palestinian Camps in Lebanon,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 16(2): 2944. The author discusses the relation between the state, law, and primary forms of identity and loyalty among Palestinians in refugee camps in Lebanon before 1982. The study shows that there are different legal authorities that combine both traditional and innovative procedures to solve conflict. These include parts of the customary laws used in Palestine and laws implemented and developed by the PLO.
  • Roy, S. 1989 Changing Political Attitudes Among Caza Refugees,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 19(1): 8391.
  • Salem-Murdock, M. 1989 Arabs and Nubians in New Halfa: A Study of Settlement Irrigation. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. The book discusses the transformation from a domestic mode of production to a capitalist mode of production in a Sudanese village. The socioeconomic differences between the Arabs and Nubians are described, and detailed information about household adaptation strategies to the New Haifa Scheme is presented.
  • Sarhan, B. 1970 Palestinian Children: The Generation of Liberation. Beirut: Palestine Liberation Organization, Research Center. This sociological study of Palestinian children in Lebanon and Jordan discusses the children's feelings and attitudes. He aims to show that displacement did not break the continuity of Palestinian national entity. He aims to measure national awareness of the children, their attachment to Palestine, and their determination to liberate their home country.
  • Sayigh, R. 1988 Palestinians in Lebanon: Status Ambiguity, Insecurity and Flux,” Race and Class, 30(1): 1332. The author describes the impact of Palestinian refugees on the Lebanese economy since their arrival in 1948. The relationship between the refugees and the state and how it changed over time is presented in a historical context that takes into consideration the emergence of the Palestinian resistance movement and the changes that took place after the Israeli invasion of 1982.
  • Sayigh, R. 1979 Palestinians: From Peasants to Revolutionaries, A Peoples' History. London: Zed Press.
  • Sayigh, R. 1977 The Palestinian Identity among Camp Residents,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 11(3): 323. The author shows that Palestinian identity among camp residents is based on a number of factors, including a historical background different from other Arab nations, displacement, poverty, oppression, uncertainty about Arab support, development of national identities within the Arab world, establishment of the PLO, and kin and neighborhood solidarity. The author considers displacement a central factor that led to consolidation of Palestinian relations and supported their identity.
  • Sayigh, R. 1977 Sources of Palestinian Nationalism: A Study of a Palestinian Camp in Lebanon,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 6(4): 1740. Discusses different sources of socialization among Palestinians in refugee camps in Lebanon, including family and community, official sources, political parties, political action, and experiences of marginality. The author suggests that the state of marginality that Palestinian refugees experienced after displacement is a major source of socialization because it continues to inform and bring into discussion the group's identity and how they might change their marginalized situation.
  • Tibawi, A. L. 1963 Visions of the Return: The Palestinian Refugees in Arabic Literature and Art,” Middle East Journal, 17(5): 507526.
  • E — Kinship, Family, and Gender.
  • Alafenish, S. 1987 Processes of Change and Continuity in the Kinship System and Family Ideology in Bedouin Society,” Sociologia Ruralis, 27(4): 323340. The author discusses the role of the tribal kinship system and Islamic ideology in Bedouin society through a study of two sedentarization projects implemented in Israel in 1966 and 1978. The author points to how these settlements did not take into consideration the kinship structure, which led to many conflicts as well as disintegration of the Bedouin tribe.
  • Allaghi, F. 1981 Rural Women in a Resettlement Project: The Case of Libya.” Paper presented to the ILO Tripartite Regional Seminar on Rural Development and Women in Africa, Dakar, 15–19 June.
  • Bendt, I. and J. Dowing 1982 We Shall Return: Women of Palestine. London: Zed Press. The book provides a portrait of Palestinian women's daily lives in refugee camps in Lebanon. It illustrates the impact on the women's experience of both the 1948 expulsion of Palestinians from their home country and the emergence of the Palestinian Revolution (1965).
  • El Adly, F. M. 1969 The Local Communities of New Nubia: The Effects of Migration and Resettlement with Special Reference to Family Organization in Sayala Village. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the University of Cairo.
  • El Sawi, J. 1965 The Nubian Woman in Cairo: Patterns of Adjustment: A Case Study of Five Families. M.A. thesis presented to the American University in Cairo.
  • El-Solh, C. F. 1989 Egyptian Peasant Women in Iraq: Adapting to Migration.” In Forced Labor and Migration: Patterns of Movement Within Africa. Ed. A. Abebe and S. Ishema. London: Hans Zell Publishers.
  • El-Solh, C. F. 1985 Migration and the Selectivity of Change: Egyptian Peasant Women in Iraq,” Migrants et Mediterranee — Peuples Mediterraneens, 3132. The author discusses the changes that occurred in women's roles and status after resettlement of thousands of Egyptian families in Iraq. She connects these changes with variations in places of origin of the settlers, which influenced the adaptation process after resettlement.
  • Geiser, P. 1981 Cairo's Nubian Families,” International Journal of Sociology, 11(2): 285312. The article is based on a sample of 427 Nubian residents in Cairo and census data from 1960. It shows that the Nubian family structure continued to be nuclear and is divided into four types: filial (headed by unmarried male), fractional (headed by married male whose wife lives in Nubia), conjugal (headed by a married man whose wife lives with him), and consanguinai (headed by a widowed or divorced male). How these different types adapt to life in urban Cairo is described. The relationships within the Nubian community as a whole in Cairo and the relationship with Nubia are also discussed.
  • Ghabra, S. 1988 Palestinians in Kuwait: The Family and the Politics of Survival,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 27(2): 6284. The article examines some of the mechanisms that helped maintain the Palestinian community after displacement in Kuwait. The author gives the family a central role in supporting group unity. In death, mourning, visiting, housing, economic activities, and family funds and clubs, the family formed a network that supported the community. The author concludes that the family remained the framework that regulated people's relations and actions.
  • Ghabra, S. 1987 Palestinians in Kuwait: The Family and the Politics of Survival. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Kebbede, G. 1991 The Agonies of Displacement: Ethiopian Women Refugees in Khartoum, Sudan,” Geojournal, 23(2): 99106.
  • Palmer, I. 1982 Employment among Refugee Women.” Paper presented at the Khartoum Refugee Seminar, Khartoum, September.
  • Punamaki, R.-L. 1990 Relationships Between Political Violence and Psychological Responses Among Palestinian Women,” Journal of Peace Research, 27(1): 7585. Compares three groups of Palestinian women to see how they were affected by political violence. The first group was from the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the second from refugee camps in Lebanon, and the third from Israel. The article shows that the women from refugee camps in Lebanon had the lowest level of political and personal worries and suffered fewer mental problems than women in the other two groups.
  • Sayigh, R. 1987 The Third Siege of Bourj Barajneh Camp: A Woman's Testimony,” Race and Class, 4(1): 2534.
  • F — The City as a Site of Displacement and Resettlement.
  • Al-Qutub, I. 1989 The Challange for Urban Development Policies: The Case of Refugee Camp Cities in the Middle East,” Journal of Arab Affairs, 8(2): 207220.
  • Al-Qutub, I. 1989 Refugee Camp Cities in the Middle East: A Challenge for Urban Development Policies,” International Sociology, 4(1): 91108. An analysis of refugee camps and their relationship with urban centers, refugee camps are presented as transitory communities until more permanent patterns are established. These communities show a strong sense of belonging and solidarity despite pressures from many sides and, in the case of camps in Lebanon, continuous attacks by the Israelis.
  • Al-Safty, M. 1983 Sociological Perspectives on Urban Housing.” In Urban Research Strategies for Egypt. Ed. R. Lobban. Cairo: Cairo Papers in Social Science, the American University of Cairo. A discussion of resettlement projects in Cairo. Displacement was seen as necessary to improve the housing conditions of the urban poor. The editor discusses some of the problems that faced these projects and mainly focuses on how people tried to adapt to their new houses. She does not analyze the relationship between displacement and resettlement.
  • Amar, M. 1985 Urban Refugees in Khartoum: From Illusion to Disillusion,” Refugees, 3233.
  • Cooper, D. 1992 Urban Refugees: Ethiopians and Eritreans in Cairo. Cairo: The American University of Cairo Press. The book is a discussion of the situation of Ethiopian and Eritrean urban refugees in Cairo. It covers the refugees' socioeconomic background and daily survival strategies, as well as their resettlement in some Western countries. These refugees are mainly middle-class, young, single, well-educated men who come from urban areas. For most of them, Cairo is just a station in a longer journey to the U.S., Canada, or Australia. However, many of them are forced to stay for years before they can leave Cairo due to legal and social difficulties. The author argues that contradictions and inconsistencies in international policy concerning refugees should be examined.
  • Dodge, C. et al. 1987 Profile of the Displaced in Khartoum,” Disasters, 11(4): 24350.
  • El Sawi, J. 1965 The Nubian Woman in Cairo: Patterns of Adjustment: A Case Study of Five Families. M.A. thesis presented to the American University in Cairo.
  • Geiser, P. 1981 Cairo's Nubian Families,” International Journal of Sociology, 11(2): 285312.
  • Hamid, G. M. 1992 Livelihood patterns of the Displaced Households in Greater Khartoum, Sudan,” Disasters, 16(3): 230239.
  • Hassan, N. M. 1985 Social Aspects of Urban Housing in Cairo,” MIMAR, 17:5961.The article discusses governmental projects that led to displacement from the inner city and resettlement of large numbers of families in Cairo. The author focuses on the changes introduced by this process and emphasizes the negative aspects of these projects, especially the socioeconomic and political stress and the destruction of the resettled group's culture and heritage.
  • Karadawi, A. 1987 The Problem of Urban Refugees in Sudan.” In Refugees: A Third World Dilemma. Ed. J. Rogge. New Jersey: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Karadawi, A. 1980 Urban Refugees in the Sudan.” Paper presented to the conference on Refugees in the Sudan, Commission for Refugees.
  • Kebbede, G. 1991 The Agonies of Displacement: Ethiopian Women Refugees in Khartoum, Sudan,” Geojournal, 23(2): 99106.
  • Weaver, J. L. 1988 Searching for Survival: Urban Ethiopian Refugees in Sudan,” Journal of Developing Areas, 22(4): 457475. Examines the impact of Ethiopian refugees (estimated to be 200,000) on Sudanese cities based on interviews with 1,012 Ethiopian refugees living in Khartoum. The problems these refugees face and their impact on the Sudanese community and politics are discussed.
  • Weaver, J. L. 1985 Sojourners along the Nile: Ethiopian Refugees in Khartoum,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 23(1): 147156. Discusses the problems facing Ethiopian refugees living in Khartoum and the factors that forced them to leave their home country. The author shows that the refugees are worse off economically than they were in Ethiopia and presents some policy options.
  • G — Resettlement in Rural Areas.
  • Abubaker, G. S. 1979 Rural Participation in Program Phases: A Case Study of Resettlement and Rural Development of Khashm al Girba (New Haifa) Project. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the State University of New York, Albany.
  • Ahmed, A.G.M. 1978 Integrated Rural Development: Problems and Strategies: The Case of the Dinka and Nuer of the Jonglei Projects Area in the Sudan. Report No. 8, the Executive Organ for the Development Projects.
  • Allaghi, F. 1981 Rural Women in a Resettlement Project: The Case of Libya.” Paper presented to the ILO Tripartite Regional Seminar on Rural Development and Women in Afica, Dakar, 15–19 June.
  • Arioglu, E.K.A. 1977 Responses of Rural Dwellings to Recent Earthquakes in Turkey (1973–1975).” Proc. 6WCEE. 1-16-1-66.
  • Arioglu, E.K.A. 1973 Responses of Rural Dwellings to Recent Earthquakes in Turkey (1969–1973). Proc. 5WCEE, 1:529538.
  • Cronch, P. 1979 Village Reconstruction in Lebanon,” Disasters, 3(2): 126129. The article discusses reconstruction of two villages in South Lebanon, Aintoura, and Tarshish. It deals mainly with a pilot project where displaced people were encouraged to come back and participate in the reconstruction process. The author gives some recommendations that might be useful in other settings.
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  • El-Hamamsy, L. and J. Garrison, eds. 1979 Human Settlements on New Lands: Their Design and Development. Cairo: The American University in Cairo. The book comprises the proceedings of a workshop on the planning and development of rural settlements, held in Alexandria in September, 1971. Papers were presented by social scientists and administrators. The former discussed social aspects that should be considered while planning and implementing resettlement projects, such as the need for dynamic planning to keep a balance between physical, economic, and social development of the settled group, and the need for dialogue between project administrators and settlers. Administrators discussed planning and implementation of settlement projects in Arab countries like Egypt, Sudan, and Syria.
  • El-Solh, C. F. 1989 Egyptian Peasant Women in Iraq: Adapting to Migration.” In Forced Labor and Migration: Patterns of Movement Within Africa. Ed. A. Abebe and S. Ishema. London: Hans Zell Publishers.
  • El-Solh, C. F. 1985 Migration and the Selectivity of Change: Egyptian Peasant Women in Iraq,” Migrants et Mediterranee—Peuples Mediterraneens, 3132. The author discusses changes that occurred in women's roles and status after resettlement of thousands of Egyptian families in Iraq. She connects these changes with variations in places of origin of the settlers, which influenced the adaptation process after resettlement.
  • El-Wifati, B. 1978 Some Socio-Economic Considerations in the Agricultural Settlement of Bedouins: An Example from Libya,” Land Reform, Land Settlement and Cooperatives, 1:6987.The article discusses some of the problems that a Bedouin dry farming settlement faced in Libya. It provides statistical analysis to show how variation in the farmers' income, social and economic conditions, family structure, and the settlers' management abilities relate to their attitudes toward modernity.
  • Fathy, H. 1969 (73) Architecture for the Poor — An Experiment in Rural Egypt. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. The book is a vivid description of the author's experience as an architect commissioned by the Egyptian government to build new houses for villagers displaced during the 1940s in order to turn the original village into an archaeological site and safeguard it from looting. The villagers were resettled close to their original village and the author describes how he tried to build a new village similar to the original one and how he cooperated with the villagers to incorporate their vision and needs in the construction of the new village.
  • Hoyle, S. 1977 The Khashm el Girba Agricultural Scheme: An Example of an Attempt to Settle Nomads.” In Land Use and Development. Ed. P. O'Keffe and B. Wisner. London: International African Institute.
  • Tadros, H. 1978 Rural Resettlement in Egypt: Reclaimed Lands in the Northrn Nile Delta. Cairo: The American University in Cairo. A description and evaluation of government resettlement projects. The author discusses land reclamation and resettlement areas as well as demographic data concerning family size and fertility. He evaluates the resettlement projects in terms of the socioeconomic impact on the area but pays little attention to the effects of the resettlement projects on the people.
  • H — Refugee Studies.
  • Abu-Lughod, I. 1973 Educating a Community in Exile: The Palestinian Experience,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 2(3): 94111. Describes how the Palestinian question is presented in the educational curriculum of some Arab countries and discusses some of the problems that face the education of Palestinians and affect their identity. Several implications of education in exile are discussed. For example, Palestinians in exile are educated as if they lived in a stable society, with no emphasis on their consciousness or national identity. The author emphasizes the need for strategies that can produce a more highly educated community.
  • Al-Haj, M. 1986 Adjustment Patterns of the Arab Internal Refugees in Israel,” International Migration, 24(3): 651674. The article focuses on the adjustment patterns of Palestinian refugees displaced from their villages during 1948. The author uses data from private and official documents, participant observation, and interviews. He concludes that economic adjustments took place faster than social ones and that the type of interaction between refugees and local groups is an important factor in adjustment patterns.
  • Al-Qutub, I. Y. 1989 Refugee Camp Cities in the Middle East: A Challenge for Urban Development Policies,” International Sociology, 4(1): 91108. An analysis of refugee camps and their relationship with urban centers, refugee camps are presented as transitory communities until more permanent patterns are established. These communities show a strong sense of belonging and solidarity despite pressures from many sides and, in the case of camps in Lebanon, continuous attacks by the Israelis.
  • Alami, I. M. 1985 Roots of Refugee Behaviour: Source Aspects of the Pre-1948 Socio-Economic History of the Palestinian Refugees.” Paper presented at the Conference on Twentieth Century Refugees, Oxford, U.K. and York, Canada, Refugee Studies Programme and Refugee Documentation Project.
  • Aluas, M. C. 1983 Lebanon's Palestinians: life at Ground Level,” MERIP, 13(119).
  • Amar, M. 1985 Urban Refugees in Khartoum: From Illusion to Disillusion,” Refugees, 3233.
  • Anderson, D. et al. 1951 The Arab Refugee Problem: How it can be Solved. Report presented to the General Assembly of the United Nations. A proposal submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations which suggests solving the question of Palestinian refugees through resettlement in other Arab countries with financial aid from international agencies.
  • Anderson, P.-O. 1957 They are Human Too: a Photographic Essay on the Palestine Arab Refugees. New York: Know Books. The book is a collection of photographs that describe the refugee situation. It aims to show the problems of Palestinians and the misery of the refugees.
  • Arafat, S. 1989 Formal Education in UNRWA,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1): 108112.
  • Aubin, W. De. St. 1949 Peace and Refugees in the Middle East,” The Middle East Journal, 3(3):253. The article is one of the first studies of Palestinian refugees. It documents their conditions in the early days of displacement and local and international relief efforts in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, the West Bank, Iraq, Egypt, and Israel.
  • Bailey, C. 1984 Jordan's Palestinian Challenge, 1948–1983: A Political History. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Barakat, H. 1973 The Palestinian Refugees: An Uprooted Community Seeking Repatriation,” International Migration Review, 7(2): 147161. The article discusses the socioeconomic background of Palestinian refugees, causes of their exodus, obstacles to their repatriation, and prospects for the future. It is based on U.N., Arabic, and Israeli documents as well as the author's fieldwork.
  • Baster, J. 1954 Aspects of the Settlement of the Palestine Refugees,” The Middle East Journal, 8(1): 5468.
  • Ben-Porath, Y. E. et al. 1974 A Refugee Camp in the Central West Bank. Tel Aviv: The Shiloh Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies.
  • Ben-Porath, Y. E. et al. 1971 Some Sociological and Economic Aspects of Refugee Camps in the West Bank. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation.
  • Brand, L. A. 1988 Palestinians in Syria: The Politics of Integration,” Middle East Journal, 42:621637.
  • Brand, L. A. 1988 Palestinians in the Arab World: Institution Building and the Search for State. New York: Columbia University Press. Palestinian communities in Egypt, Kuwait, and Jordan are studied to show how Palestinians are trying to organize themselves. The author focuses on the development of the General Union of Palestine Students, the General Union of Palestine Workers, the General Union of Palestinian Women, the General Union of Palestine Teachers, and the Palestine Red Crescent Society.
  • Brickner, B. 1958 As Driven Sands: The Arab Refugee, 1948–1968. New York: Commission on Social Action of Reform Judaism.
  • Brynen, R. 1990 The Politics of Exile: the Palestinians in Lebanon,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 3(3): 204227.
  • Buehrig, E. H. 1971 The United Nations and the Palestinian Refugees. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. Describes UNRWA's activities and aid programs for Palestinian refugees. It shows the nature and function of UNRWA and its relationship with the refugees.
  • Bulcha, M. 1988 Flight and Integration: Causes of Mass Exodus from Ethiopia and Problems of Integration in the Sudan. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (SIAS).
  • Cattan, H. 1967 The Dimensions of the Palestine Problem. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies. The book deals with the problem of Palestine in general. It focuses on how Palestinians were treated by the Israelis, their life as refugees, and Israel's policy towards land. The book calls for the return of the refugees and the establishment of a secular state.
  • Cheal, B. 1988 Refugees in the Gaza Strip, December 1948-May 1950,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 18(1): 138158. The article traces the number of refugees and their villages or cities of origin located in Gaza during the period 1948–1950. The author describes initial sources of relief and social welfare services. Vocational training, displacement, and the desire to return home are discussed in closing.
  • Childers, E. 1973 The Wordless Wish: From Citizens to Refugees. North Dartmouth, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates.
  • Christensen, H. 1982 Survival Strategies for and by Camp Refugees: Report on a Six-Week Exploratory Sociological Field Study into the Food Situation of Refugees in Camps in Somalia. Geneva: U.N. Research Institute for Social Development. The book discusses the difficulty of distinguishing between political and economic refugees. Three Ethiopian refugee camps in different ecological settings in Somalia are compared in terms of leadership, resource allocation, and relationship with the host community. The differences in the situation of refugee men, women, children, and youth are discussed.
  • Dodd, P. and H. Barakat 1968 (69) River without Bridges: A Study of the Exodus of the 1967 Palestinian Arab Refugees. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies. Based on interviews with camp residents in Ziza, Jordan, the book focuses on the reasons that forced Palestinians to leave their home country during the period 1948–1967. The main aim of the book is to show how Palestinians were forced to leave their country under direct and indirect pressure from the Israelis. In addition, it is also an attempt to examine the relationship between the displacement process and Palestinian social structure.
  • Downing, R. 1989 A Tale of Two Clinics—Primary Health Care in Refugee Settings: Lessons from Sudan and Somalia,” Social Science and Medicine, 28(10): 10531058. The article is a study of primary health care in Ethiopian refugee settings in Sudan and Somalia. The author shows that refugees tend to shift to primary health care after they settle down and stabilize their situation. The problems associated with this tendency are discussed and the author presents ways to develop a community base for health care while meeting the specific demands and needs of refugees.
  • Ernst, F. 1989 Problems of UNRWA School Education and Vocational Training,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1): 8897.
  • Farah, T. E. 1977 Political Socialization of Palestinian Children in Kuwait,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 6(4): 90102. The article discusses how Palestinian children are taught the symbols, rituals, myths, and values of their identity. The author concludes that all Palestinians, despite differences due to gender and socioeconomic background, are still attached to the Palestinian cause and identify themselves as Palestinians.
  • Forsythe, D. P. 1983 The Palestine Question: Dealing With A Long-Term Refugee Situation,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 467:89101.
  • Goitom, E. 1987 Systems of Social Interaction of Refugee Adjustment Processes: The Case of Eritrean Refugees in Khartoum, Sudan.” In Refugees: A Third World Dilemma. Ed. J. Rogge. New Jersey: Rowman & Little Field.
  • Harris, W. 1978 Refugees and Settlers: Geographical Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1967–1978. Ph.D. dissertation presented to the Department of Geography, Durham University.
  • Hill, A. G. 1983 The Palestinian Population of the Middle East,” Population and Development Review, 9(2): 293316. The article argues that the infant mortality rate among Palestinians is lower than in other Arab and third world countries. The decline in mortality accelerated since 1970 among Palestinians in the Middle East. This decrease was slower in the West Bank and Gaza Strip as compared to refugee camps. There is no indication of fertility decline among the Palestinians in and outside refugee camps all over the Middle East.
  • ILO (International Labor Organization) 1984 Toward Self-Reliance: A Programme of Action for Refugees in Eastern and Central Sudan. Geneva: International Labor Organization/UNHCR.
  • ILO (International Labor Organization) 1983 Self Reliance for Refugees in Sudan. Geneva: International Labor Organization/UNHCR.
  • ILO (International Labor Organization) 1982 Income-Generating Activities for Refugees in Sudan. Geneva: International Labor Organization/UNHCR.
  • Jabr, H. 1989 Housing Conditions in the Refugee Camps of the West Bank,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1): 7587.
  • Johnson, N. 1978 Palestinian Refugee Ideology: An Enquiry into Key Metaphors,” Journal of Anthropological Research, 34(4): 524539. The author discusses some of the key metaphors in Palestinian refugee ideology in terms of their lexicographic range and spectrum of interpretations. He suggests that these metaphors are ambiguous and susceptible to different interpretations.
  • Kapeliouk, A. 1987 New Light on the Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Refugee Problem and Its Origins,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 16(3): 1624.
  • Karadawi, A. 1980 Urban Refugees in the Sudan.” Paper presented at the conference on Refugees in the Sudan, Commission for Refugees.
  • Karadawi, A. 1977 Political Refugees in Africa: A Case Study From Sudan, 1964–1972. M.A. thesis presented to the Reading University, UK.
  • Khalidi, W. 1984 Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of The Palestinians 1876–1948. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies.
  • Khalidi, R. 1984 The Palestinians in Lebanon: Social Repercussions of Israel's Invasion,” Middle East Journal, 38:255266.
  • Kok, W. 1989 Self-Settled Refugees and the Socio-Economic Impact of their Presence on Kassala, Eastern Sudan,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(4): 419440.
  • Kursany, I. 1985 Eritrean Refugees in Kassala Province of Eastern Sudan: An Economic Assessment,” Refugee Issues, 2(1): 123-.
  • Lawrence, D. and K. Nasr 1987 Children of Palestinian Refugees vs. the Israeli Military: Personal Accounts of Arrest, Detention, And Torture. California: BIP Publications.
  • Lytle, E. E. 1977 The Palestinian Refugees: A Selected Bibliography. n.p:n.p.
  • Marx, E. 1992 Palestinian Refugee Camps in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip,” Middle Eastern Studies, 28(2): 281294. The author's main point is that Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank and Gaza Strip are fully integrated with surrounding cities and towns. Still, the in habitants continute to consider themselves refugees. The author argues that Arab countries, UNRWA services, and Israeli policy provided many situations that produced and helped maintain the refugee identity as the dominant identity.
  • Marx, E. 1978 Changes in Arab Refugee Camps,” Jerusalem Quarterly, 8:4353.
  • Mezrik, A. G. 1980 Arab Refugees in the Middle East,” International Review Service, 23 (110).
  • Mishal, S. 1978 West Bank/East Bank: The Palestinians in Jordan, 1949–1967. London and New Haven: Yale University Press. The author examines how Palestinian refugees managed to be identified as Palestinians, feel as Arabs, and live as Jordanians. The Palestinians as a political community were able to find strategies that secured the group's identity and existance without having to face the consequences of the contradictions that surrounded them.
  • Moodie, R.F.H. and P. Trigg 1981 An Ethiopian Refugee Village in Sudan; The Question of Employment,” Disasters, 5(2): 8993. Planning for the 460,000 Ethiopian refugees in Sudan was very slow due to the absence of accurate information about their place of origin and socioeconomic characteristics. The authors suggest solutions to the refugee problem based on their reading of the census and interviews with refugees.
  • Morris, B. 1987 (88) The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947–1949. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The book, based on Israeli and British documents, describes the different stages of Palestinian displacement and examines the causes that transformed them into refugees.
  • Morris, B. 1985 The Initial Absorption of the Palestinian Refugees in the Arab Host Countries, 1948–1949.” Paper presented to the Conference on Twentieth Century Refugees, Oxford: Oxford University, Refugee Studies.
  • n.a. 1984 Helping Themselves: Ugandan Refugees in Southern Sudan and Their Secondary School at Lutaya.” Paper presented to the Symposium on Assistance to Refugees, Oxford: Queen Elizabeth House.
  • Neff, D. 1988 U.S. Policy and the Palestinian Refugees,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 28(1): 96112.
  • Papre, I. 1986 Britain and the Palestinian Refugees 1948–50,” Middle East Focus, 9(2): 1125, 31.
  • Peteet, J. 1987 Sociopolitical Integration and Conflict Resolution in the Palestinian Camps in Lebanon,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 26(2): 2944. The author discusses the relationship between the state, law, and primary forms of identity and loyalty among Palestinians in refugee camps in Lebanon before 1982. The study shows that there are different legal authorities that combine both traditional and innovative procedures to solve conflicts. These include parts of the customary laws used in Palestine and laws implemented and developed by the PLC.
  • Pinner, W. 1967 The Legend of the Arab Refugees; a Critical Study of UNRWA's Reports and Statistics. Tel Aviv: Economic and Social Research Institute. Using UNRWA reports to show that the numbers of refugees have been exaggerated, the author presents numbers he considers accurate. This is an interesting example of the importance of refugee numbers and how it is at the center of struggle in many cases.
  • Pinner, W. 1959 How Many Arab Refugees? London: MacGibbon and Kee.
  • Plascov, A. 1981 The Palestinian Refugees in Jordan, 1948–1957. London: Frank Cass. The study focuses on Palestinian refugee adaptation after moving to Jordan. The author discusses the policy of the Jordanian government towards Palestinian refugees and how the latter adapted to it. The study focuses on the 1950s, a period which, the author states, has been neglected.
  • Prittie, T. and B. Dineen 1974 The Double Exodus: A Study of Arab and Jewish Refugees in the Middle East. n.p: n.p. The book explores the process of Palestinian displacement and the migration of Jews from the same Arab countries to Palestine. The authors describe the situation of Palestinian refugees in Arab countries and try to explain why Palestinians did not integrate as other refugees do. They see this as a result of using the refugees as a part of the political struggle. The second part of the book is devoted to Israel's oriental refugees.
  • Pryce-Johns, D. 1973 The Face of Defeat. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. The author discusses the Palestinian situation in general and refugees in particular. He is mainly concerned with the emergence of the Palestinian resistance movement and its struggle for legitimacy, especially in Jordan.
  • Radley, K. R. 1978 The Palestinian Refugees: The Right to Return in International Law,” American Journal of International Law, 72:586614.
  • Rogge, J., ed. 1987 Refugees: A Third World Dilemma. New Jersey: Rowman & Little Field. The book is a collection of articles that discusses refugee problems in different Third World countries. The first section provides an overview of the problem and suggested solutions. The rest of the book presents case studies from Africa, Central America, Western Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The book has several articles about Sudan and Palestinian refugees.
  • Rogge, J., ed. 1985 Too Many, Too Long: Sudan's Twenty Year Refugee Dilemma. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allan Held.
  • Romano, A. 1984 My Experience as a Refugee in the Sudan, or Why I Remained Self-Settled.” Paper presented to the Symposium on Assistance to Refugees, Oxford: Queen Elizabeth House, 27–31 March.
  • Roy, S. 1989 Changing Political Attitudes Among Gaza Refugees,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 19(1): 8391.
  • Rubenberg, C. A. 1984 Palestinians in Lebanon: A Question of Human and Civil Rights,” Arab Studies Quarterly, 6:194221.
  • Ryan, J.-L. 1973 Refugees within Israel: The Case of the Villagers of Kafr Bir'im and Iqrit,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 2(4): 5581. The article documents how the Israelis took over the land of two Christian villages during 1948, and describes the various attempts made by the displaced Palestinians to go back to their original villages. The article specifically focuses on the villagers' attempt to return to their villages during 1972 which was resisted by Israeli authorities on the grounds of security, thereby setting a precedent and creating a crisis in Zionist ideology.
  • Sabagh, G. and M. Bozorgmehr 1987 Are the Characteristics of Exiles Different from Immigrants? The Case of Iranians in Los Angeles,” Sociology and Social Research, 71(2): 7784. The article explores the difference between immigrants and political exiles. Data about the socioeconomic, demographic, and religious characteristics of both groups are presented. The study concludes that refugees had a lower level of education, income, and occupation than the immigrants. This could be explained by the downward mobility of refugees and the high number of students in the immigrant population. The article calls for more research to explore these issues.
  • Samha, M. 1990 The Impact of Migratory Flows on Population Changes in Jordan: A Middle Eastern Case Study,” International Migration, 28(2): 215228. The article is a discussion of the impact of immigration and out-migration on the population in Jordan. Refugees who came to Jordan during and after the wars of 1948 and 1967 were the main factor in population growth. Decrease in mortality and increase in fertility among refugees led to further population growth. However, during the 1970s, many Jordanians emigrated to oil-producing countries, which led to a shortage in agricultural and domestic labor.
  • Samha, M. 1987 Camp Refugees in Jordan's East Bank: Distribution and Problems.” In Refugees: A Third World Dilemma. Ed. J. Rogge. New Jersey: Rowman & Little Field.
  • Sarhan, B. 1970 Palestinian Children: The Generation of Liberation. Beirut: Palestine Liberation Organization, Research Center. This is a sociological study of Palestinian children in Lebanon and Jordan. The author discusses the children's feelings and attitudes. He aims to show that displacement did not break the continuity of the Palestinian national entity. He aims to measure the national awareness of the children, their attachment to Palestine, and their determination to liberate their home country.
  • Sayigh, R. 1983 Palestinians in Camps: The New Reality, 1948–1965.” In The Middle East (The Sociology of Developing Societies Series). Ed. T. Asad and R. Owen. London: Macmillan Press. The article describes the Palestinian refugee experience in Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon during the period 1948–1965. The editor discusses problems that faced the refugees and how their class structure was altered after their displacement.
  • Sayigh, R. 1978 The Struggle for Survival: The Economic Conditions of Palestinian Camp Residents in Lebanon,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 7(2): 101119. The author draws a class map for Palestinians in exile showing the trends in economic structure such as the move away from agriculture and towards service, the growth of an industrialized proletariat, and the increase in the number of intellectual professionals and skilled workers. Life in exile is characterized by lack of land ownership, which has limited work opportunities for Palestinians and has created a situation of low wages, job insecurity, and absence of legal protection. Improvements in the Palestinian situation is limited due to lack of an independent economic base. The author concludes that recent changes will not transform the Palestinians' feelings about their national subordination and economic insecurity.
  • Sayigh, Y. 1952 Implications of UNRWA Operations.MA thesis presented to the American University of Beirut.
  • Schechtman, J. B. 1952 The Arab Refugee Problem. New York: Philosophical Library. The book tries to show that the Palestinian refugee problem can only be solved through their resettlement in Arab countries.
  • Schiff, B. 1989 Between Occupier and Occupied: UNRWA in the West Bank and Gaza Strip,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 17(3): 6075.
  • Scudder, T. 1981 From Relief to Development: Some Comments on Refugee and other Settlements in Somalia. Binghamton: Institute for Development Anthropology.
  • Shamir, S. 1980 West Bank Refugees—Between Camp and Society.” In Palestinian Society and Politics. Ed. J. Migdal. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Shamir, S. 1974 Communications and Public Attitudes in West Bank Refugee Camps. Tel Aviv: The Shiloh Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies.
  • Sirhan, B. 1975 Palestinian Refugee Life in Lebanon,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 4(2): 91109. The article is based on data from UNRWA, a survey conducted by the Department of Statistics (the Lebanese Ministry of Planning), and information collected through participant-observation during the period 1969–1973. The author examines and describes life in 17 refugee camps. They are characterized by a high level of crowding (the population is estimated to be 150,000) with a high percentage of young people (65% are under 19 years old). The author concludes that although these camps suffer from difficult economic circumstances and a high level of illiteracy, the residents are active and interested in politics.
  • Steketee, R. 1982 Primary Care Medicine in the Refugee Relief Program of Eastern Sudan,” Disasters, 6(3): 176183. This article deals with health services in an Ethiopian and Eritrean refugee relief program in Eastern Sudan. The author discusses the factors that affect disease patterns in the camp.
  • Swann, R., ed. 1989 Palestinian Refugees and Non-Refugees in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: Special Issue,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1): 1203.
  • Teveth, S. 1990 The Palestine Refugee Problem and its Origins,” Middle Eastern Studies, 26(2): 214248.
  • Thicknesse, S. G. 1949 Arab Refugees: A Survey of Resettlement Possibilities. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs.
  • Tibawi, A. L. 1963 Visions of the Return: The Palestinian Refugees in Arabic Literature and Art,” Middle East Journal, 17(5): 507526.
  • Turki, F. 1972 The Disinherited: Journal of a Palestinian Exile. New York: Monthly Review Press. The author draws a portrait of the refugees in the camps of Lebanon through his own experience. A refugee himself, he describes the process that forced the Palestinians to leave their country and their experiences in various Arab countries.
  • Wallace, T. 1989 Refugees and Hunger in Eastern Sudan,” Review of African Political Economy, 33:6468.
  • Weaver, J. L. 1988 Searching for Survival: Urban Ethiopian Refugees in Sudan,” Journal of Developing Areas, 22(4): 457475. The article examines the impact of Ethiopian refugees (estimated to be 200,000) on Sudanese cities. It is based on interviews with 1,012 Ethiopian refugees living in Khartoum. The problems that these refugees face, and their impact on the Sudanese community and politics are discussed.
  • Weaver, J. L. 1985 Sojourners along the Nile: Ethiopian Refugees in Khartoum,” Journal of Modern African Studies, 23(1): 147156. The author discusses the problems that face Ethiopian refugees living in Khartoum and the factors that forced them to leave their home country. He shows that the refugees are worse off economically than they were in Ethiopia and presents some policy options.
  • Wendie, H. 1989 Problems and Prospects of Repatriation for Ethiopian Refugees,” Migration World Magazine, 17(5): 1924. The article is a discussion of Ethiopian refugees (estimated to be around 770,000) in Sudan who were displaced due to famine and war. The author discusses two ways to solve the refugee problem: repatriation and settlement in Sudan. The problems involved in these two solutions are also described.
  • Williams, A. 1989 UNRWA and the Occupied Territories,” Journal of Refugee Studies, 2(1): 156162.
  • Wright, K. 1980 Sudan's Refugees, 1967–1980,” Disasters, 4(2): 157166. The article deals with Eritrean refugees in Sudan. The author discusses the condition of Sudan in general and then concentrates on the refugee situation. She describes the population movements and their socioeconomoic structure and discusses some small-scale projects such as basket-weaving implemented in the camps to help the refugees.
  • Yahya, A. 1990 The Role of the Refugee Camps,” In Intifada: Palestine at the Crossroads. Ed. H. Nassar. New York: Praeger.
  • I — Disaster Research.
  • Arioglu, E.K.A. 1977 Responses of Rural Dwellings to Recent Earthquakes in Turkey (1973–1975). Pro. 6WCEE. Pp. 116–1–66.
  • Arioglu, E.K.A. 1973 Responses of Rural Dwellings to Recent Earthquakes in Turkey (1969–1973). Proc. 5WCEE, Vol. 1, Pp. 529538.
  • Aysan, Y. F. 1985 The Erzurum-Kars Earthquake Area Revisited,” Disasters, 9(1): 2332. After two years, the author went back to an earthquake area in Eastern Turkey and describes the changes that had taken place during this period. The article studies the original villages and resettlement areas. It aims to follow up the recovery process of the communities and to examine how different types of aid were used. It examines government policy in relocating and rehousing the victims, with special emphasis on architecture.
  • Aysan, Y. F. 1983 The Erzurum-Kars Earthquake of Eastern Turkey (1983),” Disasters, 8(1): 2332. The article reviews the processes of immediate decision making after the 1983 earthquake in Eastern Turkey concerning types of emergency housing, sites of relocation, and distribution of aid. Also described are resettlement strategies, new shelters, government and international aid, as well as coping mechanisms of the community.
  • Dodge, C. et al. 1987 Profile of the Displaced in Khartoum,” Disasters, 11(4): 243250.
  • D'souza, F. 1986 Recovery Following the Gediz Earthquake: A Study of Four Villages of Western Turkey. Disasters, 10(1): 3551. The study is a survey of four villages in the Gediz region of Turkey. The survey aimed to study the local social, cultural, and economic context of the recovery process and to measure recovery in these villages, which witnessed different degrees of distress. Change, especially as related to government policy, is described, with a special focus on one settlement established after the 1970 earthquake.
  • Habitat News 1987 Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Activities in Disaster-Prone Countries: Focusing on UNCHS (Habitat) Experience,” Habitat News, 9(3). The article discusses assistance that UNCHS provides for various countries including Algeria, Turkey, and Yemen during the reconstruction process after disasters. This includes planning and conducting the reconstruction. The article states that disaster sometimes leads to improvements because the government can use its power to develop and improve the old settlement.
  • Habitat News 1987 Post-Earthquake Reconstruction in Dharwan Region, Yemen Arab Republic. Nairobi: Habitat.
  • Habitat News 1986 Yemen: Post-Earthquake Construction,” Habitat News, 8(3):11.
  • Hamid, G. M. 1992 Livelihood Patterns of the Displaced Households in Greater Khartoum, Sudan,” Disasters, 16(3): 230239.
  • Khalili, E. N. 1983 Iran: Geltaftan,” MIMAR, 8:6470.Discusses types of houses used in reconstruction after an earthquake in Iran.
  • Khan, H. U. 1983 Introduction: Earthquake—Three Approaches to Post-Disaster Shelter,” MIMAR, 8:5457.
  • Oliver-Smith, A. 1992 Successes and Failures in Post-Disaster Resettlement,” Disasters, 15(1): 1223. The author discusses the difference between planned and spontaneous resettlement projects after disasters in Turkey, Iran, Peru, and Guatemala. He emphasizes the need to include displaced people in the planning and implementation of resettlement projects.
  • Ozkan, S. 1983 'Turkey: Foam Domes,” MIMAR, 8:5964.The article traces changes in the use of one-room foam domes in a village in Turkey. The foam domes were introduced after the 1970 earthquakes to settle displaced people.