PROBLEM: The pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomata is still unclear. Recently it has been suggested that mac25 plays a tumor-suppressive role in various tumors. The aims of this study were to evaluate a possible involvement of mac25 in the growth of leiomyoma and in the mechanism of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) inducing shrinkage of leiomyoma. METHODS OF STUDY: Mac25 mRNA transcript was measured by Northern blot in total RNA extracted from the paired specimens of leiomyoma and adjacent myometrium from untreated patients (n=25) and from leiomyoma specimens from GnRHa-pretreated patients (n=10). RESULTS: Mac25 mRNA expression was significantly lower in large leiomyoma (more than 150 cm3 in volume) than in adjacent myometrium and small leiomyoma (less than 120 cm3 in volume) from untreated patients. There was no difference in this expression between the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycle. Leiomyoma from GnRHa-pretreated patients had mac25 gene expression levels similar to myometrium and small leiomyoma from untreated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Mac25 may be involved in the growth of uterine leiomyoma and the action of GnRHa may, in part, be mediated by mac25.