The Production and Clinical Evaluation of Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Macrophage Chemoattractant Protein-1 in Human Follicular Fluids


Address reprint requests to Yasushi Kawano, M.D., Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oita Medical University, Oita, Japan.


PROBLEM: In order to investigate the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human ovulation, we measured the concentrations of M-CSF and MCP-1 in human follicular fluids (FFs) and correlated them with oocyte maturation.
METHOD OF STUDY: The oocytes were obtained from the FFs of 46 women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF–ET). The concentrations of M-CSF and MCP-1 in the FFs were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, granulosa cells obtained from the FFs of IVF patients were cultured and treated with forskolin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) for 24–48 hr.
RESULTS: Concentrations of M-CSF and MCP-1 were significantly higher in the FFs than in the serum (P<0.01). M-CSF concentrations tended to be higher, while MCP-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the FFs containing mature oocytes than in FFs containing immature oocytes (P<0.05). The production of M-CSF was markedly increased over the basal level after treatment with forskolin (10 μM) for 24 (P<0.02) and 48 hr (P<0.01); however, the production of MCP-1 was unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that M-CSF and MCP-1 may play an important role in human preovulatory processes and that M-CSF, in particular, may be regulated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate. M-CSF and MCP-1 may also be valuable biochemical markers in the evaluation of oocyte maturation.