The current preliminary study investigated the relative effectiveness of an early intervention program on self-reported pain, pain-related disability, emotional distress, and symptoms of temporomandibular joint and muscle disorder (TMJMD) as defined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). These included symptoms of Axis I Group I muscle disorders, Group II disc displacements, and Group III bone deficiencies. Participants were 271 patients recruited from community dental clinics within a large major metropolitan area. Participants at a high risk for chronicity were randomly assigned to a high-risk self-care intervention or a high-risk biobehavioral intervention and were evaluated for their responsiveness immediately following treatment. As predicted, several symptoms of TMD were significantly reduced immediately following the intervention. Though these results are preliminary, it is implicated that the intervention may lead to symptom improvement.