Parent personality and depression, family conflict, and child temperament were examined in a family study design including two children 2.5–5.5 years of age. Sibling resemblance for temperament was also investigated. Parent personality and family conflict had minimal significance for child temperament outcomes. However, parent depression was associated with higher child activity level and anger, and lower inhibitory control. These findings were supported by more rigorous regression analyses that included parent depression, child gender, and age as predictors. Sibling resemblance for child activity, anger and inhibitory control was also present, supporting a genetic etiology for child temperament. These findings indicate that children of depressed parents may be at increased risk for experiencing behavioral maladjustment related to anger, hyperactivity, and impulse control.