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Electro-Sintering of Yttria-Stabilized Cubic Zirconia

Authors

  • Seung-Wan Kim,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
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  • Suk-Joong L. Kang,

    1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea
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  • I-Wei Chen

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: iweichen@seas.upenn.edu

Abstract

Electro-sintering, i.e., electrically enhanced densification without the assistance of Joule heating, has been observed in 70% dense 8 mol% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramics at temperatures well below those for conventional sintering. Remarkably, full density can be obtained without grain growth under a wide range of conditions, including those standard for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFS) and solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), such as 840°C with 0.15 A/cm2. Microstructure evidence and scaling analysis suggest that electro-sintering is aided by electro-migration of pores, made possible by surface flow of cations across the pore meeting lattice/grain-boundary counter flow of O2−. This allows pore removal from the anode/air interface and densification at unprecedentedly low temperatures. Shrinkage cracking caused by electro-sintering of residual pores is envisioned as a potential damage mechanism in SOFC/SOEC 8YSZ membranes.

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