This article studies the thermal shock resistance behavior of ceramic foams under sudden thermal load induced by a sudden temperature variation. Two types of thermal shock loading conditions are considered: cold shock and hot shock. Variations of the stress and stress intensity factor with thermal shock time, location, crack size, medium thickness, and relative density of the ceramic foam are given. Crack growth behavior is studied and crack growth velocity is explained from energy equilibrium consideration. The thermal shock resistances of ceramic foams are established from the view points of energy criterion and fracture mechanics concept.